70th anniversary of the Victory
The Great Patriotic War could not be won without winning the “oil front”. Volga-Ural region during the war, called “Second Baku”, provided the front significant amount of gasoline, ammonium nitrate, nitric acid and toluene. Refineries Soviet Union, located in a large part of the Ural-Volga region, provided the processing of almost all the oil produced in the country (93-97%). Processing volume in 1940 amounted to 29.4 million tons, and in 1945 – 17.7 million tons. During the war, oil refining, for example, in the Bashkir ASSR has almost doubled gasoline in 1945 was produced 3.5 times more than in 1940. The region has become a place of evacuation of many enterprises from the occupied areas of the Soviet Union. In 1944, important discoveries were made Devonian oil in the Ural-Volga region, led to the development of the oil industry, including oil refining in the region in the postwar period. For Soviet oil refining industry in the years of the Great Patriotic War was characterized by a combination of both new technologies and more intensive development of the capacities of the base, which was created as a result of “Stalin’s modernization” in the prewar period. One of the innovations in the war years was the development of a pure gas fields in some areas of the Ural-Volga region. It was built in a number of local gas pipelines for gas fuel oil refining. Refining industry Volga-Ural region during the Great Patriotic War, due to objective historical circumstances received a powerful impetus to the development and to a great extent provided in the technical and technological victory against the Soviet army.
The authors, contrary to well-established purely negative public assessment essentially the Soviet totalitarian regime, come to the conclusion that in the reporting period of history of salvation of the Fatherland there are two related, yet alternative trends in its functioning. On the one hand, there is increased centralization of power, its concentration in the hands of the party-state apparatus, mass repression, the formation of Stalin’s personality cult. And on the other – a definite evolution in the functioning of the totalitarian regime: some democratization, “warming” policy; modernization of the ideological sphere of society. This trend is little research in political science.
The ideological evolution of the political regime we have seen in the reorientation of the slogans of the world revolution, the communist movement, building a bright future – communism to the internal problems of war, which required new ideological values, such as patriotism, citizenship and love for the motherland, hatred of the enemy, the political unity countries, a return to the historical origins and traditions of the past.
Modernized and public policy: respect for the institution of the church and religion; increased attention to the role of intellectuals and culture; facilitated by the financial situation of the peasants. There has been some democratization of management below: street formed community committees involved in supporting families of soldiers; a number of organizational and personnel matters was transferred to the technical business managers.
New trends in the system contributed to the rise of totalitarianism patriotism and consolidation of all forces of society. Managed to restore people’s trust in government. As a result of Stalin’s regime played a significant role in the victorious outcome of the Second World War and the economic recovery in the post-war period.
The remarkable date – the 70th anniversary of the Great Victory is inextricably linked with the historical memory of our people and many years later continues to remain one of the greatest events of modern times. The heritage of the great Victory formed the so-called link between generations, affecting contemporary public consciousness examples of true patriotism of the people in General and individuals in particular during the Great Patriotic War: their unselfish love of country, courage and heroism. This enables understanding of national identity generations of modern Russia and citizens of the USSR in their valuable installations, traditions and stereotypes of both certain people, and all modern Russian society in a patriotism phenomenon as spiritual and moral heritage and becomes the key direction of strategy of patriotic education and socialization of generations of the XXI century.
The author addresses to the analysis of difficult processes of socialization of the younger generation in the conditions of modernization of the Russian education and education and states own opinion of understanding of essence of the Russian patriotism and its education in modern conditions: relevance of research of a phenomenon of patriotism and its educational potential locates in the modern sociocultural environment that assumes creation of conditions for vital success and self-realization of each citizen of Russia; the modern organizational structure of social institutes, allows to concretize reasonably a common goal – formation of patriotism of the personality as transition from mechanisms of traditional transfer of knowledge to realization of subject and target problems of the modern model of patriotic upbringing and education, focused on broadcasts of the principles of vigorous patriotically corresponding creative activity that is most connected with formation of the modern person of culture, the citizen, patriot.
The article discloses a range of issues related to the evacuation of oil production and refining enterprises of the southern parts of the territory of the Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the Great Patriotic War. Provides information on the relocation of the capital of the Moscow Oil Institute named after I.M. Gubkin, as well as the temporary deployment of the People’s Commissariat of the oil industry of the USSR. Analyzed the reasons for the decline in oil production in the years 1941-1944 in BASSR: reduction of oil production in the Ishimbai field, in connection with the departure to the front of qualified professionals, the reduction of machinery and equipment, depleted oil reservoirs and reservoir pressure drop, transfer of many wells with fountain on deep pumping methods. Reviewed the measures taken by oil specialists to increase oil production. Particular attention is paid to the study of intelligence on Tuymazinsky Devonian oil fields. The basic directions of staffing the oil industry with the involvement of women who did not participate in social production, youth doprizyvnogo age, as well as men, are exempt from military service for health reasons or are retired. The contribution of oil Bashkiria in strengthening national defense and the region’s role in the formation of the “Second Baku”.
It is concluded that by the end of the war BASSR came out on top in oil and has become one of the largest rear bases of the country. This success has been achieved, thanks to the discovery of Devonian oil, evacuate the oil industry and experts from the eastern regions, the selfless labor population BASSR.
Besides providing armaments and live ammunition a considerable role is played by providing with of troops a fuel. In the Second world wartime in this work a large role was played by oil-products pipelines.
Known military oil-products pipeline in our country there is the pipeline laid on the bottom of the Ladoga lake in 1942 He connected blockade Leningrad with Large earth.
All cycle of project and building works was executed in the very compressed terms. A pipeline was built from the pipes intended for pumping exploitation of mining holes. Reservoirs for oil-products pipeline were on oil storage “Red oilmen”, and pumps with necessary descriptions on one of storages of the Vassilievski island. Works were conducted so secretively, that an opponent so not knew about existence of the Ladozhsky pipeline. On him in the besieged city it was given near the 30% of all fuel delivered in a city. A pipeline worked to raising blockade.
Opinion existed before, that on the Ladoga pipeline to besieged Leningrad pumped over petrol exceptionally. However the certificates collected by an author allow to draw conclusion, that actually on him transported a few oil products a direct contact. It is necessary from here, that Ladoga pipeline became the first in the USSR pipeline on that the successive pumping over of foods of direct race of oil was carried out.
Along with Ladoga, in the years of Great Patriotic war in the USSR was built oil-products pipeline Astrakhan – Saratov. Building came true in a frontline situation, under the permanent bombing of aviation of opponent. Pipes, armature and equipment, were not enough. Therefore was fully to dismantle the 2th “thread” of oil pipeline of Baku – Batumi, part of highway Grozny – Tuapse and 60 kilometer area of oil pipeline Kosh – Armavir. A pipeline provided delivery of kerosene acting from Makhachkala, on Uvek oil storages and further – in troops.
In the years of Great Patriotic war for providing of Red Army a fuel repeatedly used and collapsible pipelines.