Rare earth metals (REM) is a group of 17 elements, which includes lanthanum, scandium, yttrium and lanthanides. They have unique chemical, physical and mechanical properties (high chemical activity, ability to glass formation, rigid magnetization and transition to a state of superconductivity, dielectric properties, fluorescence and laser effect, etc.). World reserves of rare earths are estimated at 130 million tons (in terms of oxides). In the first place China, Russia occupies the second place in the explored reserves of the REM. For most rare metals, Russia has a large mineral and raw materials base in the world. The industrial recovery of the REM is carried out from the loparite concentrate of the Lovozersky ore (Murmansk region). Another potential source of the REM are apatite-nepheline ores of the Khibiny massif, which should be considered as one of the most promising for Russia. Also, one of the largest deposits in the world is the Buranny area of the Tomtor ore field. REMs play an important role in the production of catalysts for the oil refining and automotive industries, permanent magnets, industrial ceramics, superconductors, phosphors, fiber optics, high-quality glass. In addition, the REM are widely used in metallurgy and the military-industrial complex. There are many possible ways to extract rare earth elements from recycled materials. Basically, they include precipitation, extraction, sorption methods, the method of ion flotation. The problem of reducing the technogenic impact of spent deposits of polymetallic sulphide ores of the South Urals is urgent. Wastewater sewage from spent quarries contains a large number of heavy metals, iron, sulfate and are significant sources of environmental pollution. In this paper, we propose a possible pathway for the purification of mining industrial wastewater, as well as for the extraction of metals from quarry and sub-water using sorbents (for example, the Kul-Yurt-Tau deposit).
Detonation is a self-sustaining process that exists in chemically active media. The possibility of propagation of the detonation wave is provided by energy release in a medium that compensates the energy costs of the detonation wave for an irreversible transformation of the medium. The phenomenon of detonation in bubble media was found in .
A wave of bubble detonation exists in chemically active bubbling media. Such systems include – «chemically inactive liquid – mixture of bubbles of chemically active gas»  and «liquid fuel – bubbles of gaseous oxidizer» . Possessing features common to all detonation waves (this self-sustaining, autowave stationary process), the wave of «bubble» detonation has specific features that manifest itself in the structure, properties, and mechanism of propagation. Studies of detonation waves in bubbling media are devoted to [4-16].
The possibility of initiating a detonation from a bubble mixture with an explosive gas into the region of the explosive gas above the bubble liquid is shown in . In experiments, bubble detonation was excited by the explosion of a wire in a bubble medium. The destruction of the boundary of a bubble medium is considered when a bubble detonation wave is reflected from it. The experiments were carried out at different distances between the wire and the boundary of the gas-liquid medium, this distance was reduced to 1 cm when a gas explosion occurred by the hot products from the explosion of the wire. The probability of transmission of the detonation process from the gas-liquid medium to the volume of the explosive gas is determined as a function of the distance from the wire to the boundary of the gas-liquid medium. Preliminary analysis indicates that a detonation wave refracted from the bubble liquid into the region of the explosive gas can not initiate detonation in the gas region, since from the free surface, the detonation wave is reflected both from the free surface and the compression wave passing into the region of the explosive gas has a small amplitude that is insufficient to initiate detonation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the process of reflection of detonation waves from a free surface.
Detonation waves exist in a variety of environments. Despite the differences in the structure and physical-chemical properties of systems detonation wave in all environments share common characteristics: detonation – a self-sustaining process. This fact is a manifestation common to all systems, properties are chemically active environment. It is the presence of energy in the environment provides the possibility of the existence of waves of detonation.
Detonation in bubble media is a unique phenomenon: a bubble detonation wave can exist in systems with extremely low energy content, mass the caloric content of chemically active bubble system by six orders of magnitude smaller than conventional solid or liquid explosives. The detonation in bubble environments, possessing common to all of the detonation wave characteristics, has a number of features, manifested in the structure, properties and mechanism of spreading [1-7].
Detonation – dissipative process: the possibility of propagation of detonation waves is provided by the energy deposition in the environment. In bubble media type» chemically inactive liquid–gas bubbles chemically active «substance capable of energy release are in the gas phase (gas bubbles). If you change the initial pressure with a given volume concentration of the gas phase mass concentration of gas and therefore the energy content of the system change. Thus, the initial pressure of the bubble environment is an important parameter affecting characteristics and the possibility of existence of detonation waves.
The study of detonation waves in bubbly liquids related to the issues of explosion safety of such systems. From experiments  it is known that the initial pressure significantly affects the speed and amplitude of waves of bubble detonation. Therefore, it is necessary to study the influence of initial pressure in the bubble on the system characteristics (speed, amplitude, amplitude and length of the original signal capable to initiate a blast wave in a bubbly liquid) detonation waves.
THE CALCULATION OF THE COEFFICIENTS OF THE LANGMUIR EQUATION FOR THE FORMATION OF A DATA BANK ON THE ISOTHERMS OF ADSORPTION
Problems of design of the adsorptive installations with adsorbers of periodic action with a stationary layer of adsorbent are considered. The method of calculation of coefficients of isotherms of adsorption of Lengmyur by minimization of not knittings of skilled and settlement data on condition of uncertainty of borders of area of optimization is stated. A basis of calculation is set of a method of the smallest squares and a method of scanning of a fragment of area of a research of a two-parametrical task with consecutive search of about extreme area and its research with the decreasing steps. The calculated coefficients of the equation of Lengmyur as the databank element on isotherms of adsorption which is a fragment of the computer-aided engineering system of the adsorptive installations are provided. On examples good convergence of results of calculations of isotherms of adsorption with experimental data is shown. The block scheme of the computer-aided engineering system of adsorbers with a stationary layer of adsorbent allowing to carry out calculation of the device for various characteristic areas of isotherms of adsorption, and also to fill up a databank with information on new systems an adsorbate adsorbent is provided.
The algorithm for calculating coefficients of the equation of Langmuir adsorption isotherms in uncertainty optimization allows to develop a computer-aided design of adsorption units. Shows the block diagram of the systems of the automated designing adsorbers periodic action with a stationary layer of adsorbent.