With the development of computer technology in the oil and gas industry, widespread tasks on hydraulic calculation of the modes of transport systems. Analytical solutions based on the use of correlations (Erkezeskor, Beggs and Brill, Grea etc.) in multiphase did not provide a precise definition of the technological parameters of work of system of transportation of oil, gas and condensate. The fundamental error in the application of these methods accumulates due to the incorrect determination of the flow regime.
Currently existing software packages that allow for dynamic calculations (the software package OLGA) require the involvement of highly qualified specialists and a considerable amount of computer time to implement one of the scenario calculations.
In connection with the above issues the question has arisen an urgent task for improving the methods of accounting for the flow regime to calculate the interfacial friction by implementing criteria that determine the flow regime of the multiphase system in the continuous formulation, and compute their correlation with hydrodynamic action. Due to the extreme importance of setting the numerical models for experimental studies are special features that can be later as “speculative” and tabulated the results of experiments. In this work, we will describe the theoretical background for an unambiguous definition of the flow regime.
To determine the flow regime are the following criteria:
– factor of disintegration of components;
– form factor component elements;
– factor degree of fragmentation of the flow components and the perfect forms of the elements.
The result presented work shows the theoretical basis and the algorithm for determining the flow regime of the multiphase system. The application of this methodology makes it possible to perform dynamic calculations, programming, design modules, multiphase flow meters, the construction of nomograms that take into account the flow regime in analytic calculations.
THE PROSPECTIVE AND PURPOSE OF REALIZATION OF SYSTEM OF ONLINE ADAPTIVE MODELLING OF PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS BASED ON COGNITIVE MAPS
In execution of modern petrochemical plants the rest of control and monitoring obligations, related with process safety, assigned to the control system. By the federal law of dangerous facilities safety, the automation system have to provide reasonable degree of predictability of system behavior. Up to the present days, the theory of advanced control using precise models of the process dynamics actively develops. Up till now, the adaptive simulation of technological installations, simulations in real time without staff participation, was the major hindrance for applying advanced process control and safety technique on complex, unpredictable units. Research in this area made it possible to identify the structure of the Adaptive Control System, applicable to describe the necessary functions. The solution that provides the ability to use adaptive cognitive maps as process models has founded. The advantage of this technique is the flexibility in use and stress-free trainability of refinery or petrochemical plant personnel. The self-organized, adaptive cognitive maps creation founded on heuristic knowledge about the process field is the best choice to level the economic effect of automation control. Unlike the “classic” modeling, cognitive maps afford to use natural human knowledge in process field, which defined by natural language and comprehensible threads. The prospective tool for its creation, developing in the Ufa State Petroleum University for provides adaptive modeling by cognitive maps is the programming complex named “Cognitive Map Builder”. This solution could be useful to resolve adaptive modeling problem with minimal budget.
Power is an important sector of our state. Electricity is one of the most environmentally friendly. In this regard, in developed countries at the present time the focus was on the development of this region. The article gives a histogram of power generation of the Russian Federation for the last three years. The authors conducted a correlation analysis of statistical data of electricity generation in Russia from January 2013 to January 2016, has vividly rendering a polygon of the frequency distribution electricity generation, derived the equations of lines of regression and compared the empirical and theoretical lines of regression, calculate the correlation coefficient and based on the data to draw conclusions. On the basis of the data of the conducted research made it is established that observed a weak inverse dependence of power generation in the Russian Federation. Observing the empirical regression line of development, it can be concluded that the weak dependence is caused by the change in production for the seasons. But a trend of gradual small decrease of electricity production in Russia.
The largest gas and condensate fields (GM and GCM) of Russia located in the Far North region with hard climatic conditions and the lack of infrastructure, including power supplies. Therefore, the main problem during the development and operation of GM and GCM automation systems is the absence of wired communication channels between the individual gas field facilities, such as wells and treatment plant. This problem is solved by using the wireless data transfer technologies. Today there are a lot of different systems for wireless data transmission, differing transmission distance, its maximum speed, the technology used.
It’s analyzed the existing technologies and systems in this article. The requirements for the operating conditions of wireless channels of communication technology used are formulated too. The best option is the use of wireless sensor networks (WSN). It is a distributed self-organizing network, consisting of a variety of sensors and actuators connected to each other via radio. This network meets the basic requirements for the gas fields, namely, it can be combined to thousands of electronic devices, cover the space of a few kilometers due to the ability of nodes to relay messages and embedded in automation systems in the area between the managed process and the SCADA system. The authors recommend to use the system “Swift”, developed by the Russian telecommunications’ company “Swift Telematics”. The main factors affecting the reliability of operation of the FSU, as well as its individual components, are considered. The ways to improve it are shown.
There is actual problem of safety control through the technological process of oil-well tubing annealing. The oil-well tubing annealing is made with purpose of repair, especially of light and heavy oil’s deposit removal, corrosion and erosion results removal, which occurs while operating. Gas is used as a fuel. It is fed to the gas burner. Real problem while operating gas facilities is gas leaking, which leads dangerously explosive steam-and-gas mixture formation. The one of the reasons of gas leaking is broken-down safety shut-off valve. If the valve doesn’t shut off natural gas feeding, it may seem that the valve is blocked up. To detect such kind of defect it’s necessary to use the system of valve penetration control. Nowadays such systems are used on the productions, and the main element of such system is a pressure switch device. The main problem of such systems is low accuracy of measurements and low operation safety.
In order to provide safety rate for personal, and to exclude gas leaking, to prevent emergency situations and to provide safe operation of the facility, it is offered to use the system of penetration control with analog pressure sensor. The sensor is located between two valves. Pressurized leakage test is carried out in two stages. Depending on test’s results the system gives the alarm of valves malfunction or the permission to flame start-up. The result of such system integration is personal safety improving and equipment reliability improvement.