The article provides the analysis of the rate of extraction and consumption of natural gas in the world for the last decades. In this regard, great significance flow meters and counters of liquids and gases. Almost none of contemporary production is not without these devices. According to worldwide operates about 15 million of measuring flow rate and volume of substances. This raises another more complex and important task – development of reference installation of natural gas consumption, which reproduces and ensure the transfer of the size of units of gas consumption when operating in the trunk pipeline pressures. Presents metrological characteristics and technical possibilities of existing major reference installations of natural gas consumption in the world “Pigsar”, “EuroLoop”, “COKE”, “CESAM”, “NEL”, “ARMZ”, “hush”. In this article the comparative analysis of the existing gas flow standards on following indicators: range absolute pressure ; stability absolute pressure ; the range of pipe diameters ; the maximum length of the measuring pipeline; the range of created expenditures; maximum uncertainty of measurement of mass flow rate of the complex. Each of the units has its own advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, when solving the task of creating such a gas flow standards, developers are encouraged to consider the advantages and disadvantages of existing facilities to ensure high precision, functionality and stability of the parameters influencing the process of reproduction and transfer of units of gas consumption. The analysis of these characteristics, and compared their technical capabilities are a few recommendations, which are formed in the form of conclusions.
In recent years, much attention is paid to the development of variable frequency drive (frequency-adjustable electric drive) for pumps of pipeline transport of oil. One of the most important problems that must be addressed during the optimization of the technological process of pumping using frequency-adjustable electric drive is the choice of the number of pumps, frequency converters and electric motors rotation speed. In the article the objectives and criteria of optimization of pumping oil by pipeline with frequency-regulated drive the pumps are discussed. For drives of main pump for pumping stations are used high-voltage electric motors. Each motor together with the pump can be switched on or off, and each motor can be powered directly from the network or from the frequency converter. While there are many possible structures as each of pump stations and technological area as a whole, with different number and combination included pumps, motors and frequency converters. In the modern system of pumping out «from the pump in the pump» mode all pumps technological area of interrelated. Changing the mode of one of the pumps changes the mode of pumping technological area, and, consequently, regimes of all other pumps. The modes of operation of all the pumps, motors and frequency converters of all pump stations technological area are interrelated. Therefore, when optimizing the process of pumping motors, frequency converters and pumps should be regarded as components of a single process. Thus, related how the composition of a component technological area and modes of their work. Therefore optimization of pumping oil is advisable to use structural-parametric optimization, which is a combination of structural and parametric optimization. Structural optimization using frequency-adjustable electric drive is the determination of the optimal number and combination included in regulated and non-regulated pumps. Parametric optimization when using a frequency regulation lies in selecting the optimal speed of rotation of each of the pumps. All criteria of optimization of modes pipeline using frequency-adjustable electric drive proposed to divide into three groups: energy criteria, the purpose of which – reduction of energy costs for pumping, technological criteria, the purpose of which is the optimization of technological parameters and to increase reliability, and operational criteria, which purpose is to reduce the cost of maintenance and repair of objects of the main pipeline. A block diagram of the structural and parametric optimization of the technological process of pumping with two contours optimization is offered. In the contours of the structural and parametric optimization the same or different criteria optimization can be used. The principles of selection criteria optimization are proposed.
The automatical electromagnetic (eddy-current) scanning flaw detector ASD “Vikhr” aimed to nondestructive inspecting of linear part of main steel gas pipeline during maintenance is described. It should be noted that existing convenient scanning flaw detectors based on magnetic flux leakage (MFL) and ultrasonic nondestructive techniques can not provide reliable detectability of stress-corrosion cracks and corrosion of metal is major hazard for exploited steel pipelines. In order to detect defects in steel pipe the differential eddy-current transducers, having high sensitivity and value of information, are used. To real-time inspecting steel pipeline the scanning flaw detector has mechanical scanning system, built-in single-board computer (SBC) and software for measured signal analyze and representation, as well as modern wireless communication equipment for remote data exchanging with inspector’s computer. Measured information is represented in display of inspector’s computer as graphic 2D-scan proportional to linear sizes of inspected steel pipeline surface simplify visual analysis and localization of most damaged defects. The scanning flaw-detector ASD “Vikhr” measured signals processing software has many additional maintain functions providing operator to inspect measured signals of eddy-current transducers particularly in the certain area of steel pipe having defects. This is allow verifying up serviceability of scanning flaw-detector ASD “Vikhr” software, as well as interpreting and editing data measured in hard conditions, that is generally increase the reliability of steel pipeline inspection results.
In the article the authors consider the problems of automation oil wells and the industry as a whole in the CIS countries. We present data of the volume of oil production, which confirms the importance of this industry to the economies of the former Soviet Union countries. Analyzes the overall level of automation of extraction of oil and gas fields in the CIS countries. We consider the automation system for wells operated by sucker rod pumps and electric submersible pumps. The authors reviewed the most common controllers and control stations for well pumps and compared their characteristics. Particular attention is paid to systems automation, produced in Azerbaijan, as Azerbaijan has been a leader in the automation of process in oil and gas industry in the Soviet Union, and now occupies a leading position in the world. The article considers the production of NGO “Neftegazavtomat” and SKB “Cybernetics” (Baku). Among their advanced development of methods of analysis can be identified using the dynamometer interference technology: position- binary method and Robust Noise Monitoring. These methods allow automatically determine the causes of faults underground pumping equipment. It is noted that the use of imported automation systems have problems with adapting equipment to local operating conditions, technical documentation and software translation on the Russian language, as well as the repair and modernization of equipment extends over a very long period of time. Found that the current level of automation of the oil fields in most cases does not meet modern requirements for safety and efficiency. Need to implement a comprehensive automation of all the objects of oil and gas with the ability to collect all the process information to the control room and distance control with it.
Influence of frequency regulation of the main pumps on waves of pressure and identification of power loss on NPS
The main reason, which can lead to the violation of the technological process of pumping during short-term power failure, is the formation of waves of pressure in the pipeline. To limit the amplitude of waves of pressure has great value to manage the duration of the wave front of pressure and form when the main pumps are turned on and off. When unregulated drives are used the duration of the wave front and its shape are the values unmanageable. If frequency-regulated electric drive of pumps of the duration is used the form of the wave front pressure can be adjusted by changing the frequency of the voltage supplied to the motor. If case of the non-regulated electric drive the front shape of the pressure wave is determined by the inertial properties of the main pump and is close to the exponentially, at the frequency drive the wave front can take any form, including the form, close to linear. This article describes an algorithm frequency start of the main pump, excluding fluctuations in pressure and shock phenomena in the pipeline. Waves of pressure in the pipeline are not formed only when disconnecting the main pump, but in violation of electricity (power loss). To identify the operating regimes of power loss, and ensuring continuity of the technological mode of pumping oil at violations in electricity the protection against loss of power is used. The article examines the influence of frequency converters for currents and voltages in the modes of power loss. A new scheme of protection against loss of power, which ensures the required speed and continuity of the technological mode of pumping oil is suggested.