Economics. Finances. Management
The analytic research results for gas price formation methods on the world markets are presented. The relevance of the research is caused by a role of Russian Federation in the world economy as the largest producer and exporter of the natural gas. Current and perspective volumes and directions of gas sale are reviewed for Gasprom PJSC as the only gas exporter from Russian Federation and the main in the Europe. The interest of the company in supply of gas to foreign countries is proved. The main methods of natural gas price formation, relevant for all regional markets, are considered in the article. The price structure of the world market of gas and the regional markets are presented. It is specified in two segments – according to transactions with the gas extracted in the territory of consuming countries and in a section of export-import transactions. The analysis for the markets of pipeline gas and sales markets of liquefied natural gas are described separately. Price levels and their dynamics are specified. Special attention is paid to the analysis of price formation methods in the European and Asia-Pacific markets as relevant for Gazprom PJSC. The conclusion is drawn that PJSC Gazprom in the export-import supply of pipeline gas adheres to two methods of pricing. It is combination of the market method, if there is a monopoly of the seller or buyer at the transaction, and the price regulated by the state with taking into account political factor. Annual reviews of the International Gas Union are taken for the research as information base.
ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE AND THE EFFICIENCY INCREASE DIRECTION FROM FIXED ASSETS USAGE IN CONSTRUCTION SPHERE OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION
The article presents the results of the analysis of the current state and the efficiency increase direction from fixed assets usage in construction sphere of Russian Federation.
The relevance of the scientific article is caused by the fact that, today, in the conditions of crisis and strengthening of competition, it is important to ensure the competitiveness of the Russian economy in general and the construction complex in particular. An important direction in improving the competitiveness of the construction sector is the modernization and technical updating of fixed production assets.
The article presents the results of the analysis of the current state in construction sector of the Russian Federation, the dynamics of key indicators of fixed assets usage construction sphere efficiency for 2010-2016.
Based on the results of the analysis, it is established that the fixed assets of most enterprises and organizations in the construction sector are outdated, updated at a low rate. At the same time, against the background of increasing wear and the specific weight of fully worn-out machinery and equipment and a large number of construction machines with expired service life in construction, the rate of commissioning of new fixed assets has slowed.
The results of the calculations showed that the dynamics of key indicators of fixed assets usage construction sphere efficiency in the Russian Federation are ambiguous: on the one hand, there is a decrease in the return on assets and an increase in the capital intensity, and on the other hand, labor productivity rises, and the labor-equity of labor increases.
The article also presents the calculations results of two sources for fixed assets renewal in the construction sector: at the credit expense and due to leasing. The calculations showed the priority of leasing as a tool for financing the fixed assets renewal in the construction sector.
THE OBJECTIVES AND GOALS IN INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES OF OPERATING COMPANIES FOR THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY
This study paper is focused on the current system of investment activities conducted by operating companies for the oil and gas industry in order to highlight the key models driving the effectiveness of the investment projects. The accounting and cost models are benchmarked in terms of their analysis of the objective, methodology and selection of the object of the analysis and that includes the cost model key specifics and benefits. The cost model analysis implies highlighting market valuation of the business; therefore, the attracted resources and funds are evaluated at a specific point in time (then current) in terms of the opportunity of using fixed net worth resources and assets for continued company operations. There are different mathematical models and methods being used for assessing financial position and predicting potential of bankruptcy of companies, based on the calculation of individual financial ratios and combinations thereof. The most famous multifactor models for predicting insolvency of companies include both international (Altman Z-score two-factor; the five-factor Altman model; the four-factor Tafler and Tishaw model; the four-factor Liese model), and national (five-factor Seifullin and Kadykov model; the four-factor Irkutsk bankruptcy prediction model; the five-factor Savitskaya model) analysis models. In keeping with the cost management approach a decision-making process must be focused on value maximization across all levels of company operations management. Financial and economic performance parameters are the targeted objects ensuring that objectives for strategic effectiveness and cost management can be achieved. The use of financial model for evaluation of company’s net is also highlighted. The study paper features a balanced scorecard (BSC) developed by r. Kaplan and Norton that became the most widely-used prediction tool because this concept combines company’s long-term development assessment ratings and its current financial performance during the operations. The BSC metrics are company-specific being used to assess and measure the operating company’s activities depending on its mission, vision and strategy based on the following important factors: internal processes, customers, finances, personnel training and development.
Results of the analysis of structure and efficiency of use of equity of the largest oil companies of the Russian Federation are presented in article. Dynamics of equity on the largest oil companies of Russia is presented: PJSC Rosneft, PJSC Lukoil, JSC Surgutneftegas, PJSC Gazprom Neft, PJSC Tatneft, PJSC ANC Bashneft. The structure and structure of all capital of the companies and also structure and structure of equity of the oil companies are analysed. Results of calculations have shown that the Russian oil companies are focused on a high share of equity in financing sources though this share and differs on the oil companies. At the same time the retained earnings act as the main source of equity of the oil companies.
Indicators of efficiency of use of equity of the oil companies are calculated and analysed. By results of calculations deterioration in turnover of equity in 2016 at most the considered companies, existence of problems with own working capital (except for PJSC Tatneft and JSC Surgutneftegas) and low profitability of equity at the PJSC Rosneft companies, PJSC Lukoil, JSC Surgutneftegas in 2015-2016 is noted.
The existing approaches to estimation of cost of equity are considered, including the method of dividends, a method of income (profitable approach), a method of assessment of yield on financial assets on the basis of use of the CAMP model, model have arrived to one action, model of an award for risk.
Assessment of equity of the oil companies on the example of the PJSC ANC Bashneft company and the PJSC Rosneft company is carried out. Calculations have shown that for the end of 2016 of a stock of both companies have been overestimated by the market.
In conditions of economic sanctions against Russia from Western countries, as well as in connection with the devaluation of the ruble, the actual problem for the whole economy of the country is the realization of the policy of import substitution.
Pump equipment is one of the types of machine building products that have the widest application in the strategically important for the country’s economy branches – the mining, oil and gas, energy industries. The share of import pump equipment in these industries on some critical positions reaches up to 80%. In the framework of the state policy of import substitution in 2015 by orders of the Russian Government Ministry of Industry and trade plans for import substitution in some industries were put in action. Indicator of the import substitution program in oil and gas industry and power engineering in respect of pump equipment, is to reduce by 2020 the share of imports for critical positions from 70-80% to 40-50%.
In a market economy, it is important that the process of import substitution was conducted as efficiently as possible – with minimum time and cost. Thus, to realize the process of import substitution it is important not only to set the final targets of the process, butto develop the effective methods of carrying out the process of import substitution, allowing step by step to know: what, why, and in what sequence should do. However, scientific and methodical fundamentals of practical realization of the import substitution process are rather undeveloped.Actual are the questions of the defining criteria for objective comparison of imported and domestic products for the purpose of import substitution, the measure of import dependence and sequence of the stages of the process.
The article presents the algorithm of a process of import substitution of pump equipment. This algorithm can be the basis for the elaboration of a practical manual of import substitution process forraw mineral companyusing many items of pump equipment. Methodological questions concerning the content of individual stages of the proposed algorithm are reviewed. The criterion for assessment of the level of import dependence on a separate group of pumps and the criterion of efficiency of the pump, which can be used for objective comparative evaluation of imported and nationalanalogs, are suggested.