Geology. Geophysics. Drilling
The article presents the results of a study of the composition of petroleum bituminous rocks of the Alimbai field located in the Zhylyoi district of the Atyrau oblast to the north-east of the city of Kulsary (Western Kazakhstan). On the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan, according to experts, reserves of natural bitumen are 1 billion tons, and petroleum bituminous rocks – over 15-20 billion tons.
The purpose of this work was to study the organic components of petroleum bituminous rocks of this field as an additional source of fuel, energy and chemical resources. Samples of oil bituminous rocks of different depths were taken for the study.
As the results of the analysis showed, the yield of the organic part of the investigated deposit ranges from 3.4 to 13.7% by weight. Natural bitumens of the Alimbai deposit are characterized by a content of oils from 57.8% to 71.3% by weight. In connection with the increase in the depth of occurrence of oil bituminous rocks, a decrease in molecular weight from 587 to 476 amu is observed.
It is shown that the content of paraffin-naphthenic and monocycloaromatic hydrocarbons is much higher than that of bi- and polycycloaromatic hydrocarbons.
The distribution of hydrocarbons by fractions shows the predominant content of paraffin-naphthenic hydrocarbons and alcohol-benzene resins with a low content of asphaltenes and benzene resins.
The obtained results show that even within a small thickness of the rock there are processes of migration of organic matter by analogy with secondary oil migration processes.
The results of physico-chemical studies of reagent K-100 and laboratory analysis of the basic properties of bentonite suspension and natural clay solution taken from a well being drilled in the Noyabrsk oil and gas region of Western Siberia are presented. The reagent K-100 was examined in the concentration range of up to to 3%.
Reagent K-100 is a plugging polymeric additive for liquidation of interformational overflows. The reagent K-100 is manufactured at the Tyumen Plastics Plant “Uralchimplast”. With the industrial application of K-100 reagent in clay solutions, the density of the solution and colloidal content of the clay fraction were observed to be high.
Aqueous solutions with K-100 reagent additives practically do not reduce the surface tension at the kerosene boundary and exhibit low inhibitory properties with respect to the clay slurry of the Noyabrsk oil and gas region of Western Siberia. By the amount of liquid emitted during the swelling of the clay powder, the K-100 reagent is observed to be inferior to other known inhibitors. It is also ineffective for use in qualitative perforation of terrigenous productive horizons; therefore, it is more expedient to be used in composition with other swelling inhibitors, hydrophobic agents, surface active agents and surfactants
The reagent K-100 is observed to form gel-like mixtures with salts of divalent metals. Additions of the reagent in clay solutions actively dilute the solution; the structural and rheological properties become minimal, the pH level increases and flocculation does not occur. Peptization of the clay phase is intensified due to increase in the pH level of the clay solutions
In geophysics, one of the most important areas isgeothermy – science about the study of the thermal field of the Earth. One of the main problems of geothermy is to determine the undisturbed temperature of rocks. The geothermal field parameters (natural rock temperature, geothermal gradient, heat flux) can be used as search attributes of oil and gas deposits. Knowing the natural temperature of rocks is also necessary for wellbore thermal data interpretation. In borehole thermometry, the geothermal distribution as the unperturbed natural rock temperature is the background in the detection and analysis of temperature anomalies associated with productive layers and casing integrity damage. Today, there are no generally accepted methods for determining the unperturbed temperature of rocks. The methods used in practice have a number of problems and allow only to estimate approximately the natural temperature of the rocks. When drilling, the temperature field in the surrounding rocks varies and it takes a considerable time to restore it. This process can continue from a few days to several months-in the case of deep wells, so the natural temperature of the rocks can be measured directly only in a small amount of long time of idle wells.
The known methods for determining equilibrium temperature of rocks are analyzed in the article. A new method based on recording the non-stationary temperature in the well after stopping drilling and determining the equilibrium temperature of rocks based on the use of a simulator of non-stationary temperature in drilled wells is proposed. The mathematical model of the simulator, the formulation of inverse problems and algorithms of their solutions are discussed.
THE STUDY OF THE PRODUCTION BATCHES OF THE REAGENT TYLOSE WATER CHEMISTRY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY LUBRICANT ADDITIVES FLOTATION-OXAL FOR DRILLING FLUIDS
The influence of commercial batch samples of reagent water chemistry Tilose made by the company “Hoechst AG” (Germany) for the basic and special properties of bentonite suspensions and drilling natural polimergranita drilling fluids oil and gas region of Western Siberia. Given information about physical-chemical properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), a reagent Tylose water chemistry.
Acceptable additive reagent Tilose of water lead to a sufficient reduction of the filtration rate of clay solutions. However, the structural-rheological properties of clay solutions increase less than the reagent Tilose EC-7. Results of the effect of additives reagent Tilose of water in mixed solution (from the waste at the wells, followed by enrichment of bentonite clay solution).
The laboratory findings of the two compared quantities of reagents Tilose of water arrived at different times, comparable in terms of impact on the properties of clay solutions, which indicates compliance with the same synthesis technology and production of the reagent.
Additionally, a study conducted for the joint processing of drilling mud reagent Tylose water chemistry and reagents Nа2CО3, NTF, NGL-11. Natural drilling fluids, selected wells were treated in the polymeric reagent Whom Paz, lubricant additive flotation-oxal, and other Data established solutions were subjected to tempering. In some cases, the solution treated with reagent Tylose water chemistry, reduced structural-mechanical and rheological properties, but the rate of filtration of the solutions after incubation are not increased. In precoat solution treated with reagent NGL-11, increased colloidal clay component of the solution, as it has peptizyme action.
The study is based on the effects of carboxymethyl starch reagent KMK-Bur-N – Carboxymethyl starch reagent KMK-Bur-N is an additive to water-based drilling fluids for regulating filtration, structural, mechanical and rheological parameters in the manifestation of mineralized mineral waters containing Ca ++ and Mg ++ ions. KMK Bur-N reagent is produced according to TU 2262-016-32957739-01 by the company CJSC “Polycell” (Vladimir, Russia). Carboxymethyl starch is a chemical product of the interaction of starch with sodium mono chloroacetate in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. The KMK-Bur-N reagent can also be used as part of process fluids for well completion and workover. Details are given on the physicochemical properties of KMK Bur-N reagent.
The addition of the KMK-Bur-N reagent to the bentonite suspension leads to a decrease in the filtration index, as well as an increase in the conventional viscosity, plastic and effective viscosity, dynamic and static shear stress. In addition, the KMK-Bur-N reagent can also be used for the chemical treatment of water-based natural polymer-clay drilling fluids produced in wells. Acceptable additives of KMK-Bur-N reagent in clay muds are in the range of 0.3-0.5%. Carboxymethyl starches are compatible with carboxymethylcellulose reagents and other reagents that are used to treat water-based drilling fluids in the Noyabrsk region of Western Siberia. Virtually all types of starch reagents, including the chemical product KMK-Bur-N are easily destroyed by acid treatment and subsequently removed from the productive formation in the event of formation damage during drilling or workover of wells.