Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
The paper deals with evaluation of refinery industrial safety. Ongoing monitoring of technical and technological parameters of the plant facilities allows us to solve problems in the each specific equipment diagnosis. In addition, continuous monitoring of security provides the prediction ability of the emergency installation unit. However, this approach does not resolve the question of the industrial safety state in the enterprise as a whole single object. Therefore, the task of integral evaluation of aggregate processing equipment within one company seems relevant.
The paper considers a method of estimating the generalized indicator of the safety of facilities refinery by the Lorenz curve. As a degree of danger of industrial plants parameter, a comprehensive hazard rank is adopted. Its calculation is made in consideration of each particular installation equipment ranks by the amount of circulating dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. The calculations are performed for all installations of the technological chain of oil refining in the amount of 17 units.
The Gini coefficient was started as a quantitative criterion of generalized assessment. The results of the Lorenz curve construction do it possible to determine the Gini index for each plant process unit. The calculation results has identified value of the coefficient in the range of 0,10 to 0,45.
The conclusions on the distribution of comprehensive index of industrial installations for the dangers of the plant are done. The integrated industrial safety criteria for the refinery as a whole object are defined. It is shown the integral Gini index is of 0,377, and it has indicated the uneven distribution of the risk of fire or explosion in the plant technological facilities.
As the case stands of oil and gas mass production corrosive defects evolution in concrete and masonry constructions are happened, in consequence of that strength loss and bearing-capacity failure are occurred.
One of the main requirements for industrial safety is to implement the State of the personal vital protection and society against accidents at hazardous production facilities. This fully applies to objects of oil and gas complex, intensive development of which is accompanied by enlargement of the capacity of technological equipment and installations, higher pressures and temperatures, increases in the concentrations of bust-, flame- and toxic-hazardous substances. Safety operation of dangerous industrial objects of oil and gas enterprises is a complex multifaceted problem requiring continuous improvement tools and methods used for its solution.
There is a phenomenological model’s been proposed for estimating durability of concrete and masonry construction. One combines merits of the reliability theory and the fracture mechanics doctrinals, that allows to estimate one of the extreme moment of a controlled variable: material strength, reinforcement mode, depth of concrete corrosion, fracture opening width in the clear etc. It’s estimated allowing for stochastic shift of ambient forces and random nature of constructive strength characteristics.
Refineries can have harmful effects on the health and lives of the population and the interests of society and the state, as well as environmental conditions. This is confirmed by the dynamics of accidents of industrial injuries with fatal outcome for 2004-2014 according to the report of Rostekhnadzor. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of accidents and injuries in the refining facilities, as well as bringing recommendations to reduce them. Distribution of accidents and deaths has spasmodic character. The maximum values of accidents and injuries fatalities for the years 2004-2014 on the PBO refining are shown in the data for 2014, which relate to the change in legislation in the field of occupational safety and health (OT) – the introduction of a new classification of the GRO, namely, the division into four classes danger from class I – extremely high risk to the class IV – low hazard. Hazard affect the requirements for public benefit. RTN Evidence suggests that one of the main technical causes of accidents in the oil refining enterprises is the lack of funds or inoperable emergency protection. The main organizational causes of accidents are poorly organized production control (PC), a low level of industrial safety expertise (PB) employees of enterprises. There is a lack of proper performance of their duties the employees PC services, failure to experts duties, decreased attention to the heads of organizations on PB. In this connection it is necessary to focus on those areas in PB and OT on refining enterprises, namely, to ensure the proper level of knowledge of employees of PB achieved training and periodic testing of knowledge in the PB.
The article presents statistical data on accidents and occupational injuries fatal, analyzed in detail the reasons for the changes in their values, the ways of reducing the risk of damage and injury to workers’ health; emergencies.
This article discusses the principles of action of various fire-stop-assemblies, namely a packed type flame arresters.
The explosion safety is one of the main conditions in the workplace, dealing with refined, so the use of fire-stop-assemblies is an integral part in the development of production facilities to improve security measures.
According to the territorial bodies of Rostekhnadzor reports, analysis results of the investigation of causes of accidents in 2013, shows that the greatest number of them – 43%, was due to failure and depressurization of technical devices, 21% of accidents – due to violation of the order of organizing and carrying out repairs and gas hazardous works. Inadequate technology and design flaws technical devices have caused 14% of accidents. Just 14% of accidents have happened due to violations of the process and maintenance of technical devices. Violation of shunting production have caused 7% of accidents.
In order to eliminate these causes, and enhance security at the various plants are ready to use flame arresters, which prevent burning, breaking the resulting flames into many streams, thus preventing penetration of flame into the pipelines and fuel tanks.
There are various types of arrester nozzle, such as Raschig rings, cermets, gravel, metal mesh and corrugated ribbons plate mineral wool and others. Each of these types has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we selected the most reliable flame arrester with a nozzle, elements of which are permeable to gas flow, have a high resistance to the flow of the gaseous medium. This one consists of a highly porous open-cell attachment of the ceramic heat-resistant metallic material.
The human factor aspect is usually the main cause of accidents in the production environment. For this reason the main objective of labor protection is prevention of an industrial injuries, occupational diseases, and also minimization of their social consequences. The most important task of any activities is prevention of accidents. However, if it has happened, it is necessary to prevent such situation in the future.
This article describes the results of the analysis of reports on industrial injuries and accidents in the Bashkortostan Republic for the period 2011-2014, and the analysis of causes of accidents in production environment, mainly related to the organization and training of workers on labor protection or industrial safety violation. Also it describes the accidents investigation procedure. Methods of increasing security production were presented and also were developed activities that will ensure decreasing of injuries and eliminating of the possibility of an accident. As a result it was concluded that safety improving activities will be useful only in case of managers and operating personnel interest. The basis for ensuring safety at work are not only instructions and guidance on work, which is issued by the manager, but also incoming information from employees.