Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
IMPROVEMENT OF THE APPROACHES FOR ASSESSMENT OF OPERATIONAL-TACTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FIRE -RESCUE GARRISONS
One of the most important functions of government is to ensure fire safety. The bodies of state power, bodies of local self-government, organizations, citizens participating in fire safety in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, are essential elements of system of fire safety.
The object of the study is the Ufa fire and rescue the garrison.
During the study, the analysis of the parameters characterizing the parameters of garrison of fire protection of the city of Ufa, the necessity of measures to improve the operational response of the fire departments. The novelty of the research lies in the fact that for the considered area (object of study) was first determined parameters of the mathematical models that describe the functioning of the operational units in the study area. The parameters of the mathematical models was determined on the basis of detailed analysis of statistical regularities of the process of functioning of the garrison city.
The analysis of the fire safety system has allowed to establish trends in the number of fires, to structure the factors influencing fire safety of objects and to formalize the task of increase of efficiency of functioning fire departments.
It is established that the procedure of automated data processing in the system of fire safety today reduced to the calculation of statistical indicators that does not allow for adequate analysis of the actions of personnel and to develop scenarios of firefighting.
The study has practical significance, which lies in the perfection of methods of decision-making for firefighters and reduce errors and personnel using mathematical modeling.
Received provisions allow you to effectively carry out fire prevention measures, analyze the results of the fire and use them when you encounter similar situations.
Prospects of development of hydrocarbon resources of Russia’s continental shelf and their transportation to the end consumers determine the necessity of the establishment of marine energy industry, which includes offshore platforms for oil and gas. Construction and operation of offshore platforms is associated with a high risk both human and economic. According to the WOAD (World Offshore Accident Dataset) in 2013 was identified 265 incidents/accidents occurred on offshore platforms, or 4.11 % of the accidents recorded accidents on offshore structures in the world. Since the average cost of the platforms in the sea of 3-5 times more than on land, depending on the construction conditions, the occurrence of threat or emergency, could lead to such a significant increase in the cost of the project, which can be disastrous for the overall project.
To assess the scope of loss of life from hazards fire and explosion hazard situations on offshore drilling platforms, you must use the Order №404 from 10.07.2009 “On approval of the method of determining the fire risk at industrial facilities”. However, the applicability of this document to assess fire risk offshore drilling platform is complicated by the fact that there are no reference data on the frequencies of occurrence of fire and explosion hazardous situations at the drilling offshore platforms, which makes it impossible for a fire risk assessment in General for this kind of objects.
This work is devoted to determination of frequencies of occurrence of fire and explosion hazard situations on offshore drilling platforms. To achieve this purpose were used: method of expert evaluations of probabilities of events, the method of risk analysis, quantitative methods, based on available materials (including databases, DNV Technica) on equipment failures and accidents in the operation of offshore platforms in the North sea and the Gulf of Mexico.
The impairment of interests due to oil spill damage necessitates valuation for compensation purpose. However, the question of adequacy of the compensation offered to victims of oil spillage in Niger Delta Region (NDR), Nigeria remained unanswered after decades of oil exploration and pollution in the region. The paper examined the disparity between the expected and actual monetary compensation paid to claimants for their impaired interests. A multistage sampling method was applied and data were randomly collected from residents of five oil producing communities in the region using questionnaire. In all, 1,940 questionnaires were administered but 1,125 (57.99 %) were found suitable for the analysis. The data collected were analyzed descriptively and inferentially. The results of Kruskal Wallis test showed a significant difference in the residents’ description of compensation adequacy across the selected communities; Chi-Square (χ2) = 33.221, p-value = 0.000. The result of T-test indicated that there is significant difference between the expected and actual compensation paid based on the current practice in the each of the selected communities in NDR. The paper recommended that as much as the cleanup programme contemplated by the present administration is important, the issue of compensation for damaged interest also should be given the required attention.
EVOLUTION OF CRITERIA AND MECHANISMS OF ESTIMATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN OIL INDUSTRY
In the post-Soviet period of Russia’s development, OSH management has been modernized. This put the scientific community and management practitioners in the task of searching for updated tools and methods for assessing the effectiveness of OSH management systems. Continuous improvement is one of the components of the employer’s responsibility to create and maintain such systems, their necessary element and priority.
The purpose of this paper is to compare the criteria (indicators) for assessing the effectiveness of OSH management systems and mechanisms to improve their effectiveness in Soviet («traditional») and modern management systems in the oil industry.
On the basis of the Unified Occupational Safety Management System in the oil industry of the USSR, the principles, methods of analysis and selected indicators for assessing the effectiveness of the OSH management system in the industry were identified and analyzed. Their advantages and disadvantages were critically interpreted.
Based on the analysis of a set of local regulations of the leading oil companies of the country (PJSC LUKOIL, PJSC Rosneft, oil and gas enterprises of Udmurtia), modern approaches to the development and application of indicators for assessing the effectiveness of OSH management systems have been established. With the use of comparative, illustrative, analytical, formal methods, the use of experience of “traditional” OSH management systems in the industry has been identified and critically interpreted. The reasons and the degree of its relevance in modern conditions are estimated. The problems of adaptation of foreign experience in assessing the effectiveness of the OSH operation in oil companies of Russia are studied.
The main problems are identified and prospects for the formation of an updated system of criteria and mechanisms for assessing the effectiveness of OSH management systems in the Russian oil industry are outlined.
At present, special attention is paid to the issues of industrial safety in oil refineries. This is due to the growing number of accidents in recent years. The most likely are the emergency situations associated with the process pipelines depressurization due to their corrosive wear, the normal process conditions violations, planned preventive maintenance insufficient quality, etc. Process units’ incomplete loading, caused by a change in the raw materials consumption structure at enterprises, leads to a change in the equipment loading regimes and the increase in its stops. To a greater extent, this refers to the process pipelines linking the reactor equipment, which has a no stationary change in the stress state. In this connection, it became necessary to develop a method for determining the process piping movement when the reactor axis misaligns from the vertical.
The process piping deformation calculating results verification in the reactor axis misalignment from the vertical obtained in the SOLID WORKS software package and their comparison with the results of the reactor prototype mock-up with process piping were performed in this work. Ultimately, this allows creating a unified approach to the various factors influence study on the reactor pipeline systems, which is an important task that contributes to improving reliability and trouble-free operation. The estimation of deformation displacement piping axis deviation from the vertical reactor standard, numerical and observational methods, the comparative analysis of the results obtained.