Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
The article discusses the technology robots usage. It is reasonably shown by major technological accidents as examples that the use of robotic systems will reduce the expectancy of accidents.
Currently, the most automated production lines prime role of management and responsibility for the results of decisions made still left a man. In such an arrangement the human factor can lead to wrong actions. To eliminate such a situation the robots creating, fully leading the process, has been performed. The scope of the exclusive usage of robots is the extreme environmental conditions. The article describes a block diagram of a robot reliability assessment, quantifies the robotic systems MTBF.
The equipment companies of the world community review of technological robots showed that the number of such systems in Russia is significantly lower than the same of Europe and America. The top of Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States 10 companies, leading the design and production of industrial robots, is named.
It is noted that the oil and gas and energy industry robots are used for the assembly and maintenance of the equipment on a shelf, floor research and other underwater tasks during drilling, geological and geophysical inspections when inspecting the pipeline route, and industrial communications, identifying breakdowns and malfunctions. The description of the latest Japan, USA and Russia developments for the oil and gas industry is done. The main technical characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of them are compared.
It is shown there is no alternative to usage of robot technology in the management of work in dangerous to life and health of personnel conditions. In addition, the use of robots can significantly increase the enterprise productivity.
In modern conditions of intensive development of the oil industry the efficiency of oil refineries is determined by the reliable and trouble-free operation of the whole complex of buildings, included in its composition.
The long operational experience of oil storage tanks petroleum hydrocarbons shows that the occurrence of emergency situations on objects of the oil complex occurs for various reasons and causes economic and social losses, severe environmental consequences.
The operation of storage tanks for oil and oil products in all cases is accompanied by contamination of soils and groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons, which leads to their biochemical transformation under the impact of aerobic and anaerobic forms of microorganisms, hydrocarbon pollution, destruction of structural links sandy-clayey soils, increased content of poorly soluble gases (methane, nitrogen, hydrogen) to reduce friction and they have a clutch, reducing their bearing capacity. As a consequence of these processes there are emergencies during the long process of exploitation of oil reservoirs up to the destruction capacity leading to environmental pollution.
Assessment of long-term stability in oil reservoirs is performed today in the condition of transition of water-saturated sand-clay soils underlying reservoirs in quasi-elastic state under the action of cycle loading / unloading. However, the experience of exploitation of reservoirs shows that in the case of the base saturated sand-clay soils, the introduction of microbiota in the underground environment, contamination of soils with petroleum products and heating has been an intensification of activities of microorganisms. This process converts clay soils in quasiplasticity, quaziteque state, and Sands in a state of “heavy liquid” (quicksand) and to the loss of stability of the tank.
The article discusses the problem of integrated security system “Foundation – tank – environment” in difficult ground conditions associated with the contamination of soils, groundwater and surface waters with oil. Recommendations for improving safety during long-term operation of storage tanks for hydrocarbons.
The paper deals with evaluation of refinery industrial safety. Ongoing monitoring of technical and technological parameters of the plant facilities allows us to solve problems in the each specific equipment diagnosis. In addition, continuous monitoring of security provides the prediction ability of the emergency installation unit. However, this approach does not resolve the question of the industrial safety state in the enterprise as a whole single object. Therefore, the task of integral evaluation of aggregate processing equipment within one company seems relevant.
The paper considers a method of estimating the generalized indicator of the safety of facilities refinery by the Lorenz curve. As a degree of danger of industrial plants parameter, a comprehensive hazard rank is adopted. Its calculation is made in consideration of each particular installation equipment ranks by the amount of circulating dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. The calculations are performed for all installations of the technological chain of oil refining in the amount of 17 units.
The Gini coefficient was started as a quantitative criterion of generalized assessment. The results of the Lorenz curve construction do it possible to determine the Gini index for each plant process unit. The calculation results has identified value of the coefficient in the range of 0,10 to 0,45.
The conclusions on the distribution of comprehensive index of industrial installations for the dangers of the plant are done. The integrated industrial safety criteria for the refinery as a whole object are defined. It is shown the integral Gini index is of 0,377, and it has indicated the uneven distribution of the risk of fire or explosion in the plant technological facilities.
As the case stands of oil and gas mass production corrosive defects evolution in concrete and masonry constructions are happened, in consequence of that strength loss and bearing-capacity failure are occurred.
One of the main requirements for industrial safety is to implement the State of the personal vital protection and society against accidents at hazardous production facilities. This fully applies to objects of oil and gas complex, intensive development of which is accompanied by enlargement of the capacity of technological equipment and installations, higher pressures and temperatures, increases in the concentrations of bust-, flame- and toxic-hazardous substances. Safety operation of dangerous industrial objects of oil and gas enterprises is a complex multifaceted problem requiring continuous improvement tools and methods used for its solution.
There is a phenomenological model’s been proposed for estimating durability of concrete and masonry construction. One combines merits of the reliability theory and the fracture mechanics doctrinals, that allows to estimate one of the extreme moment of a controlled variable: material strength, reinforcement mode, depth of concrete corrosion, fracture opening width in the clear etc. It’s estimated allowing for stochastic shift of ambient forces and random nature of constructive strength characteristics.
Refineries can have harmful effects on the health and lives of the population and the interests of society and the state, as well as environmental conditions. This is confirmed by the dynamics of accidents of industrial injuries with fatal outcome for 2004-2014 according to the report of Rostekhnadzor. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of accidents and injuries in the refining facilities, as well as bringing recommendations to reduce them. Distribution of accidents and deaths has spasmodic character. The maximum values of accidents and injuries fatalities for the years 2004-2014 on the PBO refining are shown in the data for 2014, which relate to the change in legislation in the field of occupational safety and health (OT) – the introduction of a new classification of the GRO, namely, the division into four classes danger from class I – extremely high risk to the class IV – low hazard. Hazard affect the requirements for public benefit. RTN Evidence suggests that one of the main technical causes of accidents in the oil refining enterprises is the lack of funds or inoperable emergency protection. The main organizational causes of accidents are poorly organized production control (PC), a low level of industrial safety expertise (PB) employees of enterprises. There is a lack of proper performance of their duties the employees PC services, failure to experts duties, decreased attention to the heads of organizations on PB. In this connection it is necessary to focus on those areas in PB and OT on refining enterprises, namely, to ensure the proper level of knowledge of employees of PB achieved training and periodic testing of knowledge in the PB.
The article presents statistical data on accidents and occupational injuries fatal, analyzed in detail the reasons for the changes in their values, the ways of reducing the risk of damage and injury to workers’ health; emergencies.