Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
The oil and gas industry is Russia is the leading industry in terms of cash inflows to the budget. Information technologies are actively being introduced into this sphere in order to minimize the cost of oil production. It should be noted that for any large oil refinery, not only quality output is important, but also the storage and transmission of large data flows. Progress does not stand still, science and technology are developing, new tasks are emerging. In this connection, it is necessary to create new software and improve the old one.
Each software product has the right, inherent only to it, features and features that can provide certain advantages or disadvantages. In connection with the sharp advantage and a lot of modern software systems with the simultaneous fulfillment of the requirements imposed on their quality and safety. To ensure high efficiency and quality of software and software complexes, international standards are developed, developed with the participation of representatives of the leading companies in the software development industry.
The key point of the article is checking the developed software tools for semantic errors, the description of programs in accordance with GOST 28806-90 “Quality of software. Terms and Definitions”. The importance of timely software verification on various errors, as they can cause significant damage, far exceeding the positive effect of their use.
The article considers the importance of the correct use of IT terms and expressions. Static and dynamic analyzes of the software source code are considered. The advantages and disadvantages for each of the types of analysis that are presented in the table are considered. The advantages and disadvantages for each of the types of analysis that are presented in the table are considered. A static analysis of two software products was performed using the PVS-Studio analyzer. Based on the analysis, the relevant conclusions are drawn.
APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR SOLVING ISSUES OF FORECASTING BEHAVIOR OF VERTICAL VESSELS WITH PROCESS PIPING IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Second half of the twentieth century became the time of active development of such applied academic discipline as industrial safety. First of all it was connected with the industrial-production growth, increase of its concentration, complication of technologies, application of wide range of new types of substances taking part in processing procedures and so on. All of this resulted in a situation where occurring technogenic accidents possess increasingly cata.
Accidents at the enterprises of oil and gas industry usually result in high vol-ume emissions of explosion and fire hazardous substances which generate fuel-air mixture clouds, petroleum products spills and as a result – fires, explosions, failure of vertical vessels and whole installations.
Nowadays issues related to practical calculation of accidents consequences, taking into account dynamic factors affecting strength and stability of structures under the influence of external factors, including explosion, are still poorly covered.
Performance of precise numerical experiment can significantly improve safety of the facility and save time and resources, required for carrying out live experiments, for designing new facilities, moreover it can reduce accident risk of existing facilities.
The article contains development with the application of numerical methods of the model of dynamic behavior of vertical vessel with process piping under the influence of shockwave effect in full three meters positioning and taking into account multifactorial loading and detalization of object geometry. Typical changes of plastic strains distribution in different elements of the considered system, depending on the direction of shockwave effect, were analytically obtained.
ACCOUNTING OF FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE PERSON IN CASE OF THE ADMISSION TO WORKS FOR RISK DECREASE IN WELLS CONSTRUCTION
Statistical data on accident rate on objects of an oil and gas complex confirm a high role of “a human factor” in the causes and escalation of emergencies. Scientific research in the field of influence decrease of a human factor on accident rate is directed as to creation of modern imitating and training systems, improvement of procedures of professional selection, as to assessment of working conditions and a current functional state of the person in a working environment. At risk management in aspect of a human factor the main emphasis is placed on assessment of competences of personnel, their formation and development. Assessment of competences of the candidate – the first thing that the person faces at the device on hazardous production facility. Assessment procedure can be expressed in the form of an interview, passing of testing, an examination during the solution of the offered tasks. At the same time actually there is no assessment of a state in which the examinee is.
Article is devoted to the assessment of influence of a person’s current functional state on risks of emergencies on objects of an oil and gas complex. The hazardous production facility chosen for an experiment is described, assessment procedure is also given. Results of assessment of risk according to which it is possible to draw a conclusion that the reason of development and escalation of 20 % of emergencies on the chosen hazardous production facility of an oil and gas complex is the non-optimal current functional state of personnel of an object, responsible for safe functioning. Carrying out this analysis allows to reveal also the concrete factor of a functional condition of the person having negative effect on indicators of safe functioning of hazardous production facility. Identification of negative factors is a basis for development of methods of psychological ensuring activity of personnel of hazardous production facility and also improvement of procedures of professional selection and the admission to works of the increased danger in an oil and gas complex.
The article is devoted to an assessment of the level of industrial safety of one of the oil refineries of PJSC ANC Bashneft. Each of the installations in this production refers to hazardous objects and requires special attention. This is due to the fact that the equipment is drawn a large number of hazardous substances belonging to different hazard classes. To hazardous substances are not only the main components of processing, but also auxiliary and intermediate products of the technological chain. The assessment of industrial safety is an important part of production and avoids the occurrence of a fire or explosion, and in the event of an emergency – minimize the negative consequences.
To assess the level of industrial safety, it is proposed to consider all the equipment of technological installations in aggregate as a whole. The article uses an integrated assessment of the plants and production facilities of the oil refinery in terms of the risk of a fire or explosion. The indicators of all installations and industries as a whole are considered, the shares of commodity production and direct technological installations of the oil refining process are established.
In work the method of an estimation of the generalized parameter of safety of an oil refining factory by means of a curve of Lorentz is applied. As a criterion of industrial danger of each installation, the total amount of hazardous substances circulating in apparatus and pipelines is adopted.
A quantitative criterion is determined – the Gini coefficient. The coefficient values are calculated taking into account the tank farm of commodity production and without it. It is shown that hazardous substances are distributed according to technological installations with moderate unevenness – the Gini coefficient was 0,441. The installations with the maximum danger from the point of view of the quantity of explosive and fire hazardous substances are determined.
The standards of the environmental protection which have critically become tougher in the last decades demand to look for constant ways of improving the systems of technological gases purification in industry.
Currently acute problem of thin clearing of large amounts of gases from the dispersed particles.
Dedusting is carried out with the help of special devices that can be integrated into the main equipment or placed outside the process. To clean the vented gases used the apparatus of different principle and construction: scrubbers, cyclones, dust-collecting chambers, electrostatic precipitators and others.
According to the method of separating dust from the gas following dust control methods: a mechanical method (paleoscience camera, inertial dry dust collection, wet dust removal, filtration) physical method (electrostatic precipitators); physical-chemical method (absorption, adsorption, chemisorption, catalyzing the thermal method).
When assessing the efficiency of the dust collectors take note: the overall efficiency of dust removal, or the amount of dust caught in the dust collector, in relation to the amount of dust contained in the in the dust-free gas; fractional efficiency, which determines the completeness of capture of the particles of a certain size; the residual dust content in the gas when leaving the scrubber; the distribution of residue of dust in the gas to particle size or velocity. Under the effective capture know capture efficiency of over 95 %.
In the article we deal with the methods of firm particles and dust removal from technological gas during the use of the plant reactivation operation of black sulphuric acid. There is the short characteristic of an electrostatic precipitator. Also we consider the problems standing in a GTS of the industrial enterprises, which lead to decrease in overall performance of the dust and gas purificating equipment. Possible ways of these problems solution are suggested.