Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
Natural gas is one of the main energy carriers without which any branch of the national economy will not be able to ensure dynamic development. Therefore, it is necessary to control, develop and apply effectively advanced technologies, including technologies of resource-saving in trunk transport of gas.
The important task of resource-saving in pipeline transport today – reduction of real loss of gas when transporting and utilization of bursts of gas for own technological needs. About 3,5-5,5 % of the volume of gas production are for one reason or another burned on torches or gets to the environment. Bursts of methane in the atmosphere according to some information make approximately 4 billion m3 a year.
In view of a large number of bursts of gas and their negative impact on the environment a row of legislative projects about energy saving and acceptance of duties within the Kyoto Protocol according to which it is necessary to provide by 2020 abbreviation of bursts of gases in the atmosphere for 40 % of rather basic level was created. And also at a climatic conference of the UN in Paris of 2015 «The Parisian agreement» under which all sides including the Russian Federation, shall make the contributions on abbreviation of bursts of gases to the environment was accepted.
Utilization of bursts of natural gas will be able to satisfy a part of needs for energy and fuel, thus consuming of energy and fuel from primary sources will be is reduced.
The article presents the original structure of the system of gas transport, synthesis and analysis of model structure, identified the central part of the model, and formulated the basic law of security during transportation of gas. The structure of the system of gas transportation is developed in an image as a dynamic system described by the equations of the system state which is the realization of a random sequence of events with the given distribution laws. Functional interaction of all components of the system considered is schematically first, a link diagram, then in the form of a functional model. Built the graphical model, the system image has allowed using the matrix of contrastingly to identify Central level, to formulate a new approach to law of safety in the transportation of gas and to develop priority areas to provide an acceptable level of safety in gas transport management.
High requirements apply to safe exploitation of oil trunk pipelines. Safe exploitation of oil trunk pipelines significantly mentions not only system of oil transportation, but also others adjacent systems. So, for example, safety inhibition active oil trunk pipelines owing to his damage may cause the stop of oil pumping from oil extraction spot to oil refining spot with violation of normal operating modes manufacturing plants of recovering and refining oil. Acceptance of evidence-based technical and technology solutions in design stages, high-quality building and strict observance of rules of technical operation ensure safety of operation on a production object. Properties of metal of pipes and the equipment of the main oil pipelines, their intense deformed state, the environment and properties of the pumped-over oil form parameters of safe operation of objects. Increase in level of mechanical tension in a wall of pipes and the equipment, change of tension in size and the sign, increase in frequency of these changes negatively influence safety of operation of the oil pipeline. Corrosive attack of the pumped-over product and the environment to metal of pipes and the equipment and also power impact of the environment on them reduce safety at operation of a construction. During long operation of pipelines there is a gradual deterioration in metal properties of pipes and the equipment and also accumulation of the defects leading to decrease in their safety. Safety of pipelines in the course of their operation can be reached by renovation, reconstruction, periodic determination of the actual technical condition and timely carrying out repair. Carrying out repair work is the most widely used way of safety during operation of the main oil pipelines. Repair of the main oil pipeline, owing to its design features and the rigid mode of operation, is rather difficult process demanding considerable expenses. There is a number of methods and means of repair of the main oil pipelines increasing industrial production safety. At the same time, the analysis of methods and means of repair shows need of their further improvement. The main directions of improvement of repair of pipes with use of couplings are given.
STATISTICS OF EMERGENCY ACCIDENTS IN THE REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY FOR THE 2007-2016 YEARS
In the second half of the ХХ century there have seen a dramatic leap in the growth of the construction of the oil refining and petrochemical industries. Along with the growth of enterprises was carried out and the increase of their concentration, complication of technological processes and production, which resulted in an increase in the number of circulating data objects, flammable gases, flammable and combustible liquids. All this has led to the deterioration of the fire situation and increase the number of large technogenic accidents. The accident of modernity differ a catastrophic scale, huge damage to the environment and the economy, as well as high mortality and injury rate.
For petrochemical and oil-refining industries are of an emergency such as: total or partial destruction of technological devices and installations, fire strait, the formation of toxic clouds, the explosion of the fuel mixture and other dangerous situations.
Despite the tightening of the legislative framework in the field of ensuring fire and industrial safety, in our country still has a high accident rate among the objects of oil-refining and petrochemical industries. High accident risk is primarily associated with low quality of technological equipment, highly susceptible to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as the presence in the feedstock of a large number of sulfur compounds present in large quantities in the oil of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and other regions of the Russian Federation.
To reduce the number of accidents at oil-refining and petrochemical industries, first and foremost, you must know the source – the cause, in which has occurred an emergency. For this purpose, we carried out the analysis of emergencies such as fires, explosions, releases of hazardous substances that occurred at the facilities of oil-refining and petrochemical industry in the period since 2007 to 2016.
MINIMIZING THE RISKS OF TOXIC PERSONNEL APPLICATION BY AUTOMATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS FOR OBTAINING OIL-OXIDIZING BACTERIA
To date, the problem of protecting personnel in the production of drugs based on oil-oxidizing bacteria, which serve as the basis for the biological method of cleaning soil and water after oil and oil spills, is one of the acute problems. The main equipment used in the production of microorganisms of oil destructors is a fermenter. In essence, the process of fermentation is considered critical, in connection with the special requirements of sterility of production.
In this article, the main stages of the fermentation process for the production of microorganisms of oil and petroleum product destructors are singled out, and also the risks that are possible when conducting production are separately described. Potentially dangerous areas have been identified, where production personnel will be exposed to the negative impact of the production environment. Potential sites of the fermenter assemblies are considered, where the personnel interact directly with the active microflora, as well as the components of detergents, both single and their complex interaction, are noted in detail and the shortcomings of the means used in production today and their effect on the human body are noted. A method for the modernization of detergents has been proposed to reduce the risks of personnel poisoning, as well as to reduce the possible adaptation of bacteria.
To reduce the risks of infection, methods for modernizing traditional methods in the operation of the fermenter are proposed. Automation of the units of the device will allow avoiding the contact of production personnel with bacteria and reagents at many stages of work, and also reduce the human factor in conducting production, thereby increasing the productivity of the preparation, by maintaining optimal conditions for the growth and development of oil-oxidizing bacteria.