Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the industrialized regions of the Russian Federation. Concentration of industrial production in Bashkortostan significantly exceeds the all-Russian parameters, especially with regard to the placement localization of enterprises of oil refining and chemistry. A powerful complex of chemical and petrochemical plants, stretching for 270 km along the Belaya River from Meleuz to Blagoveshensk, pollutes not only the nearest territories but also due to air masses and water transfers negatively affects certain areas. Environmental control and guarantee of safety of livelihoods is one of the priority activities of state bodies, local authorities, businesses and citizens regarding compliance with environmental rules and regulations. Monitoring the implementation of plans and measures for the protection of the environment, careful use of natural resources, improvement of the environment, observance of requirements of environmental legislation and the adoption of the necessary measures is a necessity dictated by time. In connection with the above control parameters of recycled and repeatedly used water are very important. The authors have made an attempt to carry out the statistical processing of these indicators draw conclusions on the basis of the obtained results.
The life safety issues currently in the Russian Federation and throughout the civilized world are one of the highest priority, as the life and health of citizens is the most important property of any state. In this regard, the security of both population and territory is one of the main tasks of the state. It requires the government to study the causes of accidents and disasters, to develop and improve the prevention of technogenic emergencies and deal with their forecasting. Emergency prevention, early intervention to reduce their risk, are events whose purpose is the preservation of home values of any state life and health of people. The study of the causes of emergency situations, the consideration of the past experience helps in the prevention of accidents in production, recovers the emergence and recurrence of disasters. On the basis of these tasks is a lot of different measures to prevent technogenic emergency situations of various character. The authors analyzed the effectiveness of these measures and determined the dependence of their number in our country in recent years, with the help of correlation analysis. Installed the dependence, equations of regression lines to predict and shows the effectiveness of the measures. The decrease in the values of emergencies is the life of the citizens of the country. Therefore preventive measures along with national research in this area will help to keep the main richness of the state life and health of, statistics, analysis.
Main goal of a control system of industrial safety is ensuring level of industrial safety of the hazardous production facilities operated by branches and the service organizations of the enterprises at which the risk of emergence of industrial accidents and cases of traumatism on these objects would be minimum and would correspond to the level of development of equipment and technology which has developed at a concrete stage of scientific and technical progress. In article direct link between quality of collecting and the analysis of data on accident rate and traumatism and a security status at the enterprise is noted. The worse at the enterprise incidents are investigated and considered, and there is an unwillingness “to notice” and register accidents and injuries of small weight, the more often they happen and it is heavier than their consequence. Thus, the control system of production safety and labor protection at the enterprise includes the conditions, bans, restrictions and procedures which are contained in federal laws and other regulations which are adopted in accordance with the established procedure and which observance ensures industrial safety and standard working conditions for working. main objectives of a control system: the analysis of a condition of labor protection and industrial safety on production, development of the measures directed to improvement of a condition of labor protection and industrial safety and coordination of the works directed to the prevention of accidents on hazardous production facilities.
THE ANALYSIS OF DANGERS, ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF ACCIDENTS ON HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITY AND THE RECOMMENDATION ABOUT THE CHOICE OF METHODS OF THE ANALYSIS OF RISK
High level of threat of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature and tendency of growth of quantity and scales of consequences of emergency situations require to expect future threats, risks and dangers, to apply methods of their forecast and prevention.
In article the main questions connected with the analysis of dangers, a risk assessment are considered. It is shown that a main objective of risk analysis of accidents is establishment of degree of emergency danger of hazardous production facilities and (or) its components for the advance prevention of threats of damnification of life, to human health, harm to animals, plants, environment, safety of the state, property of physical persons and legal entities, the state-owned or municipal property, threats of emergence of accidents and (or) emergency situations of technogenic nature, development, planned implementation and timely adjustment of reasonable recommendations about decrease in risk of accidents
Methodical the basics on carrying out the analysis of dangers and risk assessments of accidents on hazardous production facilities are covered. Methods of risk analysis of accidents are described and analysed. Recommendations about the choice of methods for different types of activities and the main stages of lifecycle of dangerous production process are provided.
The quantitative risk assessment of accidents is characterized by calculation of several indicators of risk and can also include one or several above-mentioned methods (or to use their results) and allows to estimate and compare various dangers and hazardous production facilities on single indicators and is most effective.
Labour activity of people in industrial enterprises refers to such types of work where a distinctive feature is the constant collision with danger. The activities of people actively used flammable, explosive, toxic and radioactive substances. The use of sophisticated and efficient equipment, as well as modern technological processes accompanied by an increase in the number and increase the level of negative factors working environment. With the increased levels of negative factors in people having chronic and acute diseases and occurs in injury and loss of life. Safety – is the level of protective measures and means of providing real risk reduction to an acceptable risk when negative factors do not exceed the permissible value. The issues of industrial safety in industrial plants – one of the most important tasks of human society at the present stage of development. This problem arises especially in the present stage of development of the productive forces, when, due to difficult to predict the social, technological and environmental consequences of emergency situations there is a risk of human society. The decision of health and safety problems in industrial plants is impossible without the creation of normal conditions for human activities. For the implementation of protective measures and means are currently used various security systems. The authors consider ways of ensuring safety in industrial plants. The authors argue that to check the parameters of working conditions and control degrees of factors of production environment, you can use the device that is related to the field of control parameters of working conditions, and can be used to control the levels of the factors of production environment, entitled “Device control parameters of working conditions. This method of control parameters of working conditions allows you to control the actual levels of factors of working conditions, such as temperature, noise, illumination, electric field intensity in the working areas of industrial enterprises. The article focused on a wide range of readers interested in this issue.