Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
At present, one of the main industrial components of the country is the oil and gas industry. Oil production, oil refining, oil transportation – all links of the oil shoulder are an integral part of the world hydrocarbon space.
A feature of the oil industry personnel labor is the impact on workers of dangerous and harmful factors that threaten health and life. The deterioration of the health of the able-bodied population, the reduction in the period of active working capacity, the increase in the number of diseases, disability and even the early death rate caused by professional activity is one of the main problems of the Russian Federation. That is why the tasks of the state as a whole and of any oil industry enterprise in particular are to maintain professional health and longevity through developing technologies and reducing morbidity and injury.
Statistical information on accidents and injuries in Russian industry is presented. The structure and dynamics of occupational morbidity in the oil and gas industry are shown. The main methods of analyzing the danger of occupational diseases in oil refineries are considered.
The method of integrated assessment of the harm index using is proposed. It is shown that its implementation in combination with modern monitoring technologies will allow to develop and implement a professional risk management system, to justify a rational set of measures to improve working conditions at oil refineries.
IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF LABOR PROTECTION MANAGEMENT IN THE EXECUTION OF THE CURRENT AND CAPITAL REPAIRS OF WELLS
A key element in ensuring the prevention of accidents and injuries is production control, affecting the level of industrial safety organizations. The effectiveness of the production control system is assessed by the industrial safety organization. As practice shows, the effectiveness of control can be significantly improved by the presence of the control system. Analysis of cases of traumatism on objects of a gas complex in the period 2010 to 2015 leads to the conclusion about the low efficiency of production control and low skills of managers. A significant number of accidents is due to poor organization of repairs, uncoordinated actions of employees, untimely notification of the beginning of a dangerous industrial activities, which can lead to death. However, the system of occupational safety management is not as successful compared to quality management systems or environmental safety. Human error, sometimes it is the unpredictability, the vulnerability in the world of modern technology, high-speed and imperceptible invisible hazards (radiation, electricity, toxic substances) all this makes Osh management and complex organizational challenge.
The article considers the issues of introduction, functioning and improvement of management systems of occupational safety at hazardous production facilities, in particular on objects of oil and gas production. To minimize risks and complete elimination of injury and ensure effective functioning of the management system of labor protection at hazardous industrial facilities proposed to create on the territory of the enterprise integrated management system of labor protection and industrial safety. Considered are the main advantages and disadvantages of this system. Selected list of technological solutions allowing to increase the efficiency of the system.
The article discusses the technology robots usage. It is reasonably shown by major technological accidents as examples that the use of robotic systems will reduce the expectancy of accidents.
Currently, the most automated production lines prime role of management and responsibility for the results of decisions made still left a man. In such an arrangement the human factor can lead to wrong actions. To eliminate such a situation the robots creating, fully leading the process, has been performed. The scope of the exclusive usage of robots is the extreme environmental conditions. The article describes a block diagram of a robot reliability assessment, quantifies the robotic systems MTBF.
The equipment companies of the world community review of technological robots showed that the number of such systems in Russia is significantly lower than the same of Europe and America. The top of Japan, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the United States 10 companies, leading the design and production of industrial robots, is named.
It is noted that the oil and gas and energy industry robots are used for the assembly and maintenance of the equipment on a shelf, floor research and other underwater tasks during drilling, geological and geophysical inspections when inspecting the pipeline route, and industrial communications, identifying breakdowns and malfunctions. The description of the latest Japan, USA and Russia developments for the oil and gas industry is done. The main technical characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of them are compared.
It is shown there is no alternative to usage of robot technology in the management of work in dangerous to life and health of personnel conditions. In addition, the use of robots can significantly increase the enterprise productivity.
In modern conditions of intensive development of the oil industry the efficiency of oil refineries is determined by the reliable and trouble-free operation of the whole complex of buildings, included in its composition.
The long operational experience of oil storage tanks petroleum hydrocarbons shows that the occurrence of emergency situations on objects of the oil complex occurs for various reasons and causes economic and social losses, severe environmental consequences.
The operation of storage tanks for oil and oil products in all cases is accompanied by contamination of soils and groundwater with petroleum hydrocarbons, which leads to their biochemical transformation under the impact of aerobic and anaerobic forms of microorganisms, hydrocarbon pollution, destruction of structural links sandy-clayey soils, increased content of poorly soluble gases (methane, nitrogen, hydrogen) to reduce friction and they have a clutch, reducing their bearing capacity. As a consequence of these processes there are emergencies during the long process of exploitation of oil reservoirs up to the destruction capacity leading to environmental pollution.
Assessment of long-term stability in oil reservoirs is performed today in the condition of transition of water-saturated sand-clay soils underlying reservoirs in quasi-elastic state under the action of cycle loading / unloading. However, the experience of exploitation of reservoirs shows that in the case of the base saturated sand-clay soils, the introduction of microbiota in the underground environment, contamination of soils with petroleum products and heating has been an intensification of activities of microorganisms. This process converts clay soils in quasiplasticity, quaziteque state, and Sands in a state of “heavy liquid” (quicksand) and to the loss of stability of the tank.
The article discusses the problem of integrated security system “Foundation – tank – environment” in difficult ground conditions associated with the contamination of soils, groundwater and surface waters with oil. Recommendations for improving safety during long-term operation of storage tanks for hydrocarbons.
The paper deals with evaluation of refinery industrial safety. Ongoing monitoring of technical and technological parameters of the plant facilities allows us to solve problems in the each specific equipment diagnosis. In addition, continuous monitoring of security provides the prediction ability of the emergency installation unit. However, this approach does not resolve the question of the industrial safety state in the enterprise as a whole single object. Therefore, the task of integral evaluation of aggregate processing equipment within one company seems relevant.
The paper considers a method of estimating the generalized indicator of the safety of facilities refinery by the Lorenz curve. As a degree of danger of industrial plants parameter, a comprehensive hazard rank is adopted. Its calculation is made in consideration of each particular installation equipment ranks by the amount of circulating dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. The calculations are performed for all installations of the technological chain of oil refining in the amount of 17 units.
The Gini coefficient was started as a quantitative criterion of generalized assessment. The results of the Lorenz curve construction do it possible to determine the Gini index for each plant process unit. The calculation results has identified value of the coefficient in the range of 0,10 to 0,45.
The conclusions on the distribution of comprehensive index of industrial installations for the dangers of the plant are done. The integrated industrial safety criteria for the refinery as a whole object are defined. It is shown the integral Gini index is of 0,377, and it has indicated the uneven distribution of the risk of fire or explosion in the plant technological facilities.