Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
2017 is declared the year of ecology in Kazakhstan with the aim of attracting attention to the problems of ensuring the stability of the ecological situation and environmental security of the country.
The paper shows that the further development of the oil and gas complex is inextricably linked with the use of associated petroleum gas and the development of new technologies in the field of storage and processing of crude oil.
Environmental problems associated with the development of the Kashagan deposit have been analyzed, and methods for their solution have been proposed.
The main environmental problems that require immediate solutions before the re-operation of the Kashagan field are the following:
– emission of sulphates and accumulation of solid sulfur in the region as a result of improper processing and storage of sulfur;
– acid rain;
– possible pollution of the Caspian Sea, dangerous transportation of oil from the Kashagan field abroad;
– change in the chemical form of components and mass emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere and soil due to underestimation of severe climatic conditions in the region;
– relocation of thousands of people to safer places where there is no strong emission of toxic gases, and as a result of poisoning of hospitalization (Tengiz field is a good example).
Harm to the environment and the health of the population living in the areas adjacent to the field, causes associated gas flaring. Since the utilization of associated gas is managed by the state, in order to increase the economic efficiency of the petrochemical industry, a set of measures is needed to stimulate the state to ensure the maximum possible utilization of associated gas by processing it. The priority solution for utilization of associated petroleum gas is its use to generate electricity for the needs of the oil companies themselves.
The introduction of methods of consecutive oil and oil products pumping through the pipeline is also topical.
Prior to the re-launch of the Kashagan deposit, all issues related to the environmental security of the region should be resolved.
The work considers the fundamentals of human life during pneumatic testing of pipeline. Invalid strength pipe and high pressure destruction occurs in the form of explosion of the object, accompanied by the appearance of a shock wave. The shock wave is a transient process is very quick conversion of substances with the release of large amounts of energy in a small volume and is one of the most dangerous effects on humans. The typical width of the shock wave in the air – 10-4 mm (several lengths of free path of molecules). Small thickness of such waves gives possibility in many problems to consider it as a discontinuity surface. But in some cases, it is the structure of the shock wave. This task is of theoretical interest. For weak shock waves, a good agreement of experiment and theory gives a model taking into account viscosity and conductivity of the environment. For shock waves of sufficiently high intensity structure should take into account (consistently) the stage of establishment of thermodynamic equilibrium, the translational, rotational, for molecular gases even and vibrational degrees of freedom, in certain conditions, the dissociation and recombination of molecules, chemical reactions, the processes involving electrons (ionization, electronic excitation). In this paper we have investigated the dependence of the conditional probability of defeat of a man from a change in the overpressure of the shock wave of the explosion. On the basis of the conducted researches the measures to prevent the occurrence of the shock wave pneumatic tests: strict adherence to safety standards and conditions for the maintenance of pressure in the pipeline, ensure an acceptable working range of conditions of the pneumatic tests, the availability of required serviceable equipment and fittings.
A host of complex gas, which is composed of an apparatus for implementing the process of low-temperature separation, is characterized by high pressures. So, gas coming from gas fields may reach values of pressure 12 MPa, which in the event of an accident, creates a risk of harm to the staff servicing this node. Thus, the necessary calculation of wall thickness of pipelines and gas equipment. Besides, the condensation of the heavy components of the gas stream is accompanied by a significant release of cold, which can cause adverse effects on personnel working with this equipment. Supersonic separation involves the expansion of pre-cleaned from mechanical impurities downhole products in a supersonic nozzle profile, which is accompanied by temperature decrease. When passing the critical section of the nozzle the gas flow reaches the speed of sound and later in the diffuser is cooled to the desired temperature. From the point of view of ensuring safety of the working personnel, the implementation method of low-temperature separation allows to avoid unwanted negative effects. This is because this technology does not involve the participation of employees, during the implementation of technological operations, as required, for example, the expander technology.
The paper discusses promising from the point of view of modernization of existing installations of complex preparation of gas of low-temperature separation of a supersonic technology based on the use of isentropic expansion, followed by isentropic compression of the gas stream instead of the classic isoenthalpic cooling. For analysis of the nozzle was realized a mathematical model of the supersonic nozzle. Numerical simulation plays an important role in accelerating the development of the method necessary to optimize and improve the separation efficiency and reduce the cost of this method. To ensure trouble-free operation of the technology in question was used to calculate the thickness of the wall based on the loads acting on the profile, caused by the pressure of the medium inside the nozzle, and stresses in the metal from temperature changes.
ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF PROFESSIONAL DISEASES OF UNDERGROUND PERSONNEL ON OIL-STORES OF YAREGSK PLACE OF BIRTH
The study is devoted to the analysis of occupational diseases of workers engaged in mining of oil. Oil mine rather a retreat from generally accepted ideas about the mining industry of Russia and the world. The basis of the thermo-slag method is a decrease in viscosity and an increase in the fluidity of the oil due to the heating of the formation by injection of the coolant. The technology used to extract heavy oil has created special working conditions that form the structure of harmful and dangerous production factors (VOOPF) and carry the risk of obtaining occupational diseases. The analysis and assessment of the risk of obtaining occupational diseases makes it possible to study the distribution of harmful factors causing occupational diseases of workers, comparison with occupational diseases of the coal mining industry, the structure of causes of occurrence and work experience. The statistical method of analyzing occupational morbidity for underground personnel of the Yaregsky oil refineries showed a high incidence rate over the past 17 years. The group at risk of occupational pathology includes workers who are involved in the site of excavation and expansion of mine workings. For the oil industry, occupational diseases by priority are as follows: vibro-disease, chronic lumbosacral radiculopathy, chronic neurosensory hearing loss and the only case of reflex miotonic syndrome. The group of investigated cases of occupational diseases of the underground staff of the Yaregsky oil shale is in the field of the expert-statistical method for assessing occupational risk. The uniqueness of the working conditions of oil mines does not allow us to draw analogies with similar industries. As a result of the performed calculations, the value of occupational risk is obtained by which we determine the index of occupational diseases, which corresponds to the category: «Very high occupational risk». There is a need to develop procedures to better take into account the impact on health of occupational diseases. To increase the overall level of occupational safety at work, a comprehensive assessment of occupational risk is necessary, taking into account the combined effects of negative factors .
Considering the importance of the problem of increasing the industrial and fire safety of pipeline systems in the transportation of flammable, flammable and chemically hazardous substances, the primary task is the development of new high technology, ensuring their high reliability and efficiency of safe operation.
According to statistical data, during the 2011-2015 period, Technical diagnostics of more than 600 units of pipeline systems, only every fourth pipeline met the requirements of industrial safety. The share of pipelines containing unacceptable defects reaches 70-80%.
At the moment, a significant part of the technological equipment has fulfilled the normative service life and is in operation for more than 30 years. Based on the results of previous studies, the current system of oil trunk pipelines and oil product pipelines has also developed its own resource – the wear of the system is about 80%. The number of accidents related to pipeline rupture is still not decreasing due to high mechanical stresses in the areas of increased operational loads.
The development of technology for the safe transportation of fire and explosive and chemically hazardous environments through the creation of a safety management system for pipeline systems based on the criteria for minimizing non-stationary systemic risks is a very urgent task.
The solution of the problem of ensuring the safety of operation of pipeline systems is the creation within the existing systems of dispatch monitoring of a subsystem of operational monitoring and management of non-stationary risks, which, along with operational control and management of technological regimes, prevents possible pre-emergency and emergency situations.
The article describes developments aimed at increasing the level of safe operation of pipeline systems in the transportation of explosive and chemically hazardous environments by minimizing synergistic risk.