Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
This article discusses the principles of action of various fire-stop-assemblies, namely a packed type flame arresters.
The explosion safety is one of the main conditions in the workplace, dealing with refined, so the use of fire-stop-assemblies is an integral part in the development of production facilities to improve security measures.
According to the territorial bodies of Rostekhnadzor reports, analysis results of the investigation of causes of accidents in 2013, shows that the greatest number of them – 43%, was due to failure and depressurization of technical devices, 21% of accidents – due to violation of the order of organizing and carrying out repairs and gas hazardous works. Inadequate technology and design flaws technical devices have caused 14% of accidents. Just 14% of accidents have happened due to violations of the process and maintenance of technical devices. Violation of shunting production have caused 7% of accidents.
In order to eliminate these causes, and enhance security at the various plants are ready to use flame arresters, which prevent burning, breaking the resulting flames into many streams, thus preventing penetration of flame into the pipelines and fuel tanks.
There are various types of arrester nozzle, such as Raschig rings, cermets, gravel, metal mesh and corrugated ribbons plate mineral wool and others. Each of these types has its own advantages and disadvantages. In this paper we selected the most reliable flame arrester with a nozzle, elements of which are permeable to gas flow, have a high resistance to the flow of the gaseous medium. This one consists of a highly porous open-cell attachment of the ceramic heat-resistant metallic material.
The human factor aspect is usually the main cause of accidents in the production environment. For this reason the main objective of labor protection is prevention of an industrial injuries, occupational diseases, and also minimization of their social consequences. The most important task of any activities is prevention of accidents. However, if it has happened, it is necessary to prevent such situation in the future.
This article describes the results of the analysis of reports on industrial injuries and accidents in the Bashkortostan Republic for the period 2011-2014, and the analysis of causes of accidents in production environment, mainly related to the organization and training of workers on labor protection or industrial safety violation. Also it describes the accidents investigation procedure. Methods of increasing security production were presented and also were developed activities that will ensure decreasing of injuries and eliminating of the possibility of an accident. As a result it was concluded that safety improving activities will be useful only in case of managers and operating personnel interest. The basis for ensuring safety at work are not only instructions and guidance on work, which is issued by the manager, but also incoming information from employees.
The oil and gas industry is one of the most important field, because the mineral-raw potential of state determines the efficiency of other industries and the level of development of social sphere.
Due to the intensification of oil and gas industry the number of operating personnel has increased; it makes a more significant impact of human factors on the probability of occurrence of emergency situations. Human is a highly organized biological system and sometimes he takes wrong decisions because of their psychological characteristics and organism condition. Decision-making is a complex mechanism which depends on many factors, making it to be actual for study. There is a need to systematize the existing information related to this subject and to create new methods of monitoring factors affecting the ability of personnel operating processing plants to correctly perform certain functions.
The article describes various theoretical approaches of understanding decision-making process and factors directly influencing the choice of options. There has been recommended to make provide additional control of competence of operating personnel, which will minimize the possibility of emergencies, entailing a threat to human lives and environment and prevent financial losses.
BY THE ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS AT THE FACILITIES OF THE PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX AND IDENTIFY THE CAUSES OF THESE SITUATIONS
The aim of the work was improving the efficiency of industrial safety management system and occupational safety and health at the site through the analysis of incidents, identify the causes and systemic disorders, finding solutions to prevent and eliminate such situations. In accordance with the purpose of the following tasks:
– analysis of accidents, incidents and incidents under consideration and similar facilities;
– systematization and detailed analysis of technical and organizational causes and systemic disorders that lead to the occurrence of accidents;
– on the basis of the analysis to make recommendations to improve the effectiveness of measures to ensure industrial safety and labor protection at the facility.
As a result of systematic analysis of the causes of accidents for each group of causes have been identified primary sources of its occurrence and the proposed activities, resulting in the case of their performance, significantly reduced the number of accidents and increased performance of safe operations at the facilities. The main conclusions of the work.
1 It is necessary to modernize production with funding to upgrade obsolete equipment.
2 Pay on recruiting qualified staff, their training and motivation of attention.
3 Effective and quality of human resources management, together with funding sources to solve the technical problems will enable, in our view, provide an acceptable level of safety.
The practical significance of this work lies in the implementation of the proposed measures to improve the effectiveness of the management of industrial safety and labor protection.
The Republic of Bashkortostan is one of the industrialized regions of the Russian Federation. Concentration of industrial production in Bashkortostan significantly exceeds the all-Russian parameters, especially with regard to the placement localization of enterprises of oil refining and chemistry. A powerful complex of chemical and petrochemical plants, stretching for 270 km along the Belaya River from Meleuz to Blagoveshensk, pollutes not only the nearest territories but also due to air masses and water transfers negatively affects certain areas. Environmental control and guarantee of safety of livelihoods is one of the priority activities of state bodies, local authorities, businesses and citizens regarding compliance with environmental rules and regulations. Monitoring the implementation of plans and measures for the protection of the environment, careful use of natural resources, improvement of the environment, observance of requirements of environmental legislation and the adoption of the necessary measures is a necessity dictated by time. In connection with the above control parameters of recycled and repeatedly used water are very important. The authors have made an attempt to carry out the statistical processing of these indicators draw conclusions on the basis of the obtained results.