Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
The article considers the problem of oil spills in the water sector and on land, leading to environmental pollution and the occurrence of accidents at hazardous production facilities, and economic losses too.
Transportation of oil and gas through main pipelines necessitates the reliable operation of pipeline systems. Freelance situations on the line objects of the oil and gas industry can cause not only great economic damage due to product losses and disruption of the continuous production process in related industries, but may be accompanied by environmental pollution, the emergence of fires and even be a threat to human life. When transporting large volumes of oil and gas of high pressure, it is necessary to ensure the reliability of the main pipelines.
The natural aging of pipelines and, in this connection, a significant increase in the requirements for their ecological safety are characteristic features of the working conditions of pipeline transport. These moments determine the main directions for improving the system for preventing and eliminating emergencies in the industry. One of such areas is the introduction of monitoring systems for the technical condition of main pipelines and their facilities.
To solve this problem, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles and remote monitoring of the environment methods is considered.
Unmanned aerial vehicles have a distinct advantage over manned systems in situations where operational efficiency is required. The reduction in total response time is due to the fact that it does not require the deployment of supporting tools that are needed when we use manned aircraft. For detection of oil spills prompted to install on the unmanned aerial vehicles sensor of microwave radiometry, laser radar, infrared and ultraviolet spectrometers, etc. They allow to identify an emergency situation, conduct remote spectrum analysis, which calculated the area and the thickness of the oil slick, giving the possibility of obtaining images. Establishing the location of the aircraft is possible by the method Monte Carlo and using the capabilities of geographic information systems. Thus, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles with detection sensors will allow timely liquidation of accidents at oil facilities and will help reduce the risk of further pollution of the environment.
IMPROVEMENT OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS AND SAFETY INSTRUMENTED TUBE FURNACES ON THE BASIS OF MONITORING OF THE COKING PROCESS PARAMETERS
Tubular heating furnaces are an important element of modern oil and gas complex, they are used for high temperature heating and reactions of liquid and gaseous oil products. At the same time, tubular heating furnaces are one of the most hazardous production facilities.
The most common method of ensuring industrial and fire safety tubular heating furnaces is the use of emergency warning systems (EWS) and emergency automatic protection (EAP).
Causes of accidents and their consequences in tubular heating furnaces are:
– depressurization of a tubular coil – is the predecessor of the fire of the furnace;
– the extinction of the burner – which causes an explosion in a tube furnace;
– depressurization of equipment outside the furnace leads to an explosion the outside of the tube furnace.
In this article, we have considered in detail one of the emergency situations in tubular furnaces, namely a fire caused by the burnout of the tubular coil. This situation was chosen because it is most often occur in process plants with tubular furnaces. It potentially improve terms of improving systems of automatic control and EAP. Burnout of the tubular coil is very often associated with its coking. At the moment, the introduction of the contours of the EAP of the stop function of the furnace due to coking of the coil is not implemented, only the triggering of EWS.
In this paper we propose an improvement of automatic control systems, EAP and EWS tubular furnace by monitoring parameter of a coking – speed coking. The rate of coking is proposed to calculate using the virtual quality analyzers using the parameters of the coking process: temperature, flow, pressure, product density, and other parameters. The obtained value of the coking rate will be the average value due to the fact that it is not constant along the length of the tubular coil.
The issues of industrial safety are becoming more urgent on the reason of the encreasing number of technogenic disasters.
This article shows the statistics of accidents and fatal injuries at hazardous production facilities for 1995-2016, as well as their main causes.
The main stages of development of supervisory and control functions for industrial safety and labor protection by the state are determined. The role of the mining management in the organization of supervisory and control activities in the developing industry of Russia in XVIII-XX centuries is shown.
The modern stage of industrial safety development in the Russian Federation is shown, and the development of a risk-oriented approach in the field of industrial safety is considered, since risk is an integral part of any enterprise and activity.
Risk-oriented approach is a method of organizing and implementing state control (supervision), while the choice of intensity (form, duration, periodicity) of control measures is established by referring the activities of a legal entity, individual entrepreneur and (or) production facilities to a certain risk category used in carrying out such activities.
To date, the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision is planning to implement a phased introduction of a system for remote monitoring of technological processes at hazardous production facilities. This system allows to receive online all necessary information according to which object security status can be judged, and the important point is that it makes a long-term forecast of the occurrence of incidents and accidents at the site.
Development and introduction of new scientifically based methods of quantitative assessment of fire risk is an actual problem. Normative values of fire risk are established by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 123-FZ «Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements». The aim of this work is to analyze modern approaches to assess the fire risk of hazardous production facilities and production facilities. The most applicable methods for determining fire risk in quantitative terms are considered, namely, the Order of the Ministry of Emergency Measures of the Russian Federation dd. July 10, 2009, No. 404 «On Approval of the Method for Calculating Fire Risk Values at Production Facilities» and Rostechnadzor Order No. 144 dd. April 11, 2016 «Methodical Basis for Conducting Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment of Accidents at Hazardous Production Facilities». The object of the study was the industrial site «State Farm Management of Underground Gas Storage» (Sovkhoznoe UGS). Based on the statistics of Rostekhnadzor for the recent 5 years, the main unfavorable events and the main reasons for the depressurization of underground reservoirs were considered and determined in percentage terms. On the basis of the event development tree, the most probable and most dangerous scenarios were identified, and risk assessment was carried out on the territory of the industrial site of the Sovkhoz UGS. Based on the calculations for risk assessment, the analysis of the methods used is carried out. Having considered the practice of application of calculation methods for assessing fire risks, an attempt to formulate specific shortcomings in methodologies and to make proposals for their improvement has been made. It is concluded that it is necessary to create and further disseminate a single improved methodology for calculating objects of all classes of fire danger.
Natural gas is one of the main energy carriers without which any branch of the national economy will not be able to ensure dynamic development. Therefore, it is necessary to control, develop and apply effectively advanced technologies, including technologies of resource-saving in trunk transport of gas.
The important task of resource-saving in pipeline transport today – reduction of real loss of gas when transporting and utilization of bursts of gas for own technological needs. About 3,5-5,5 % of the volume of gas production are for one reason or another burned on torches or gets to the environment. Bursts of methane in the atmosphere according to some information make approximately 4 billion m3 a year.
In view of a large number of bursts of gas and their negative impact on the environment a row of legislative projects about energy saving and acceptance of duties within the Kyoto Protocol according to which it is necessary to provide by 2020 abbreviation of bursts of gases in the atmosphere for 40 % of rather basic level was created. And also at a climatic conference of the UN in Paris of 2015 «The Parisian agreement» under which all sides including the Russian Federation, shall make the contributions on abbreviation of bursts of gases to the environment was accepted.
Utilization of bursts of natural gas will be able to satisfy a part of needs for energy and fuel, thus consuming of energy and fuel from primary sources will be is reduced.