Environment, labor safety, fire and industrial safety
In article we analyze the possible causes of emergence and development of emergency situations taking into account failures and malfunctions of equipment, possibility of human errors, external impacts of natural character. The analysis of possible scenarios of occurrence and development of emergencies in technological blocks is carried out. Application of a method of the analysis of dangers of technological object on danger degree is proved. The design procedure of quantity of steams of the gasoline participating in creation of hit hard factors at ordinary filling by the closed stream of the railway tank is offered. Justified discrete process of forming layers of gasoline when filling the railway tank-car. Volumes of steams of gasoline forced out through a mouth of the tank for different weather conditions are calculated. The estimation of a condition of occurrence of explosion of an air mix of oil products in territory a railway loading rack is given. For an estimation of degree of danger of a real railway loading rack on which filling oil products in railway tank it is carried out with deviations from obligatory requirements of Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety the diagramme “reason-consequence” is developed. On its basis the analysis and a quantitative estimation of risk of failures is made for ordinary filling by the closed stream of the railway tank. Application of an offered technique allows at performance of complex inspection of an actual state of a bulk-oil railway loading rack into account presence of deviations from obligatory requirements of Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety to receive the objective information on the basis of a quantitative estimation of risk about a condition of industrial safety on object.
To increase the level of qualification and training on industrial safety at the enterprises operating hazardous production facilities in the framework of the functioning system of industrial safety management provides the mandatory training and testing of knowledge of employees, as well as periodic training actions in emergency situations. The result of this study is to assess the level of compliance of professional competences of workers to the industrial safety requirements. The formation of professional competence is significantly affected by the level of development of individual professionally important qualities of employees. To improve the efficiency of compulsory education in the field of industrial safety automated systems for evaluation of professionally important qualities of workers of the main professions were developed and implemented, as well as operational staff, determine not only the willingness of staff to act in emergency situations, but also to carry out works of heightened danger. The development of these automated systems included the following main stages: study of the productive activities of employees; expert assessment of the significance of the qualities necessary for the successful management of emergency operations and hazardous work; determination of information content of the standardized tests for the assessment of the identified characteristics; the establishment of local standards for each test and the integral criterion to assess the readiness of the worker to actions on localization and liquidation of consequences of accidents and to carry out works of heightened danger. The use of these automated systems will allow, on the one hand, to reduce the likelihood of accidents by increasing the effectiveness of the procedure of mandatory training and testing of knowledge of requirements of industrial safety workers of basic trades and on the other hand, to reduce the extent of the damage in the implementation of accidents due to preparedness of the operational staff of the hazardous production facilities for action localization.
The oil and gas industry is Russia is the leading industry in terms of cash inflows to the budget. Information technologies are actively being introduced into this sphere in order to minimize the cost of oil production. It should be noted that for any large oil refinery, not only quality output is important, but also the storage and transmission of large data flows. Progress does not stand still, science and technology are developing, new tasks are emerging. In this connection, it is necessary to create new software and improve the old one.
Each software product has the right, inherent only to it, features and features that can provide certain advantages or disadvantages. In connection with the sharp advantage and a lot of modern software systems with the simultaneous fulfillment of the requirements imposed on their quality and safety. To ensure high efficiency and quality of software and software complexes, international standards are developed, developed with the participation of representatives of the leading companies in the software development industry.
The key point of the article is checking the developed software tools for semantic errors, the description of programs in accordance with GOST 28806-90 “Quality of software. Terms and Definitions”. The importance of timely software verification on various errors, as they can cause significant damage, far exceeding the positive effect of their use.
The article considers the importance of the correct use of IT terms and expressions. Static and dynamic analyzes of the software source code are considered. The advantages and disadvantages for each of the types of analysis that are presented in the table are considered. The advantages and disadvantages for each of the types of analysis that are presented in the table are considered. A static analysis of two software products was performed using the PVS-Studio analyzer. Based on the analysis, the relevant conclusions are drawn.
APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR SOLVING ISSUES OF FORECASTING BEHAVIOR OF VERTICAL VESSELS WITH PROCESS PIPING IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Second half of the twentieth century became the time of active development of such applied academic discipline as industrial safety. First of all it was connected with the industrial-production growth, increase of its concentration, complication of technologies, application of wide range of new types of substances taking part in processing procedures and so on. All of this resulted in a situation where occurring technogenic accidents possess increasingly cata.
Accidents at the enterprises of oil and gas industry usually result in high vol-ume emissions of explosion and fire hazardous substances which generate fuel-air mixture clouds, petroleum products spills and as a result – fires, explosions, failure of vertical vessels and whole installations.
Nowadays issues related to practical calculation of accidents consequences, taking into account dynamic factors affecting strength and stability of structures under the influence of external factors, including explosion, are still poorly covered.
Performance of precise numerical experiment can significantly improve safety of the facility and save time and resources, required for carrying out live experiments, for designing new facilities, moreover it can reduce accident risk of existing facilities.
The article contains development with the application of numerical methods of the model of dynamic behavior of vertical vessel with process piping under the influence of shockwave effect in full three meters positioning and taking into account multifactorial loading and detalization of object geometry. Typical changes of plastic strains distribution in different elements of the considered system, depending on the direction of shockwave effect, were analytically obtained.
ACCOUNTING OF FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE PERSON IN CASE OF THE ADMISSION TO WORKS FOR RISK DECREASE IN WELLS CONSTRUCTION
Statistical data on accident rate on objects of an oil and gas complex confirm a high role of “a human factor” in the causes and escalation of emergencies. Scientific research in the field of influence decrease of a human factor on accident rate is directed as to creation of modern imitating and training systems, improvement of procedures of professional selection, as to assessment of working conditions and a current functional state of the person in a working environment. At risk management in aspect of a human factor the main emphasis is placed on assessment of competences of personnel, their formation and development. Assessment of competences of the candidate – the first thing that the person faces at the device on hazardous production facility. Assessment procedure can be expressed in the form of an interview, passing of testing, an examination during the solution of the offered tasks. At the same time actually there is no assessment of a state in which the examinee is.
Article is devoted to the assessment of influence of a person’s current functional state on risks of emergencies on objects of an oil and gas complex. The hazardous production facility chosen for an experiment is described, assessment procedure is also given. Results of assessment of risk according to which it is possible to draw a conclusion that the reason of development and escalation of 20 % of emergencies on the chosen hazardous production facility of an oil and gas complex is the non-optimal current functional state of personnel of an object, responsible for safe functioning. Carrying out this analysis allows to reveal also the concrete factor of a functional condition of the person having negative effect on indicators of safe functioning of hazardous production facility. Identification of negative factors is a basis for development of methods of psychological ensuring activity of personnel of hazardous production facility and also improvement of procedures of professional selection and the admission to works of the increased danger in an oil and gas complex.