Machines and Apparatuses of Chemical Plants. Machines and Apparatuses of Oil and Gas Industry
APPLICATION OF SENSORS-SIGNALER SAND AND DRIP MOISTURE TO THE MONITORING MODE OF THE WELLS UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE
The article shows the relevance of monitoring the removal of particulate matter and condensed moisture in the product UGS wells, gas and gas condensate fields. Comparative characteristics of used domestic and foreign acoustic control in the gas flow phases is given. Particular attention is paid to the simultaneous control of the content of sand and condensed moisture alarms sensors that do not require expensive verification schemes and allow reliable assessment of the dynamics of the processes at the wellhead and gas gathering points. The results of operation of the combined alarm sensor DSS-AKE-2 on the two largest domestic UGS. The necessity of a direct calibration of acoustic sensors on the technological objects of different configurations is set. It is shown that the currently used in advanced devices such as DSS-A modification and the production of “Sigma-Optic” in performance is not inferior to foreign analogues in the implementation of operational monitoring wells operating parameters. The devices allow a timely manner to prevent flooding, the formation of clay-sand plugs, as well as reduce the risks of abrasive destruction of gas production equipment. The analysis of existing designs of detectors and alarms sensors showed that the sensor performance DSP-AKE-2 is not inferior to any domestic or foreign analogues, and for the simultaneous control of sand and condensed moisture superior to them and may be subject to import substitution. They can be used to predict the destruction of the reservoir, the formation of clay-sand plugs, reduce erosion-corrosion wear of gas production equipment and to minimize the costs of cleaning and preparation to transport gas.
Pilot and settlement studies whenever possible of use of the tubular turbulent device the design diffuser-konfuzornoy are conducted at an obessolivaniye of gas condensate. It is revealed that, from the point of view of small pressure difference on the ends of the device and efficiency of hashing, the relation of diameter of the diffuser to diameter of a confusor equal 2.0 is optimum. On the example of gas condensate of the Tolkyn field of the West of Kazakhstan it is shown that mixture of gas condensate with a small amount of fresh water (0.5 … 2% about.) in the tubular turbulent device allows to reduce the general content of salts from 95 g/m3 to 15 … 20 g/m3.
One of effective ways of target use of the high-boiling hydrocarbons of associated oil gas is their partial extraction by single absorption by stable oil. Distinctive feature in this process is prevalence of a gas phase. The conducted pilot and settlement studies have shown that at the relation of diameters equal 3.0 turbulization of mix on all length of the device with pressure difference less than 0.02 MPas is carried out. On installation of preparation of oil of the Rumayla field of the South of Iraq at a trailer step of separation at a temperature of 55 оC and pressure of 0.18 MPas about 0.84 t/hour of the associated oil gas directed to a torch are allocated. Use of the five-section tubular turbulent device and cooling of gas-liquid mix from 55 to 25 оC allows to reduce losses of hydrocarbons up to 40% of masses. Taking into account scaling it is recommended to use the five-section tubular turbulent device with diffuser-confusor design with a diameter of the diffuser of equal 240 mm, diameter of a confusor – 80 mm.
There is an overview of existing methods of estimation of residual resource of processing equipment in article. The thesis about the need for research aimed at improving the accuracy of forecasting of residual life of industrial equipment on the basis of existing knowledge and operating experience is based on the analysis of statistics of accidents formulated. As causes of accidents are three types of factors: internal, external and human factors. The former include technical malfunction of the equipment arising during operation. The external factors include external impacts of climatic and man-made disasters. The human factor in this case, the error permitted during the technological process and inappropriate actions in case of emergency situations. Development of new methods of estimation of residual resource of processing equipment is an urgent task. The resource is the most important characteristic determining the duration of safe operation, as a separate industrial facilities, and complex technical systems. Assessment of service life of industrial equipment, in particular devices for oil and gas processing is the most important task, which is conducted at the design stage and during the operation period. At the present time to assess the residual life of the PBO leading research centers developed a set of methods. According to the most General classification, they can be divided into two major groups: deterministic and probabilistic. The deterministic approach gives a reasonably accurate prediction of the service life, have not completed standard service life.Probabilistic methods of estimation of residual resource allow to take into account the cumulative impact of multiple operational loads. The criterion by which the residual resource is assigned using a probabilistic approach – probability of failure.
Reactor equipment designed for oil refining operates under complex conditions of thermal-cyclic loading and aggressive impact of the refined medium. Due to the periodicity of coke desired product obtainment, complex loading mainly affect the operation of reactors of the delayed coker units [1,2]. Appearance of defects of various kind accompanies the operation of reactors practically from the very beginning of its application [1-4, 6].
The most promising method of evaluating the limit state is the calculation-experimental approach to determine the dependency of changes of mechanical characteristics of the material in time [37, 39]. Such an approach would more appropriately at the design stage to calculate risks in the operation of hazardous production facilities [29, 30]. Thus, a review of studies devoted to the question of reliability of the reactor equipment, allows making a conclusion about the possibility of developing a comprehensive methodology to assess cumulative damage, limit state structural material and operational risks at the design stage and exploitation.
This article is devoted to the study of fluid flow in the shell side of shell-and-tube heat exchanger (STHE) and the assessment of the influence of geometric parameters on the thermal-hydraulic characteristics.
More intense heat transfer can be achieved by increasing the fluid velocity, but at the same time, it leads to a large increase in pressure drop that reduces the efficiency of heat transfer and increase operating costs.
Transfer of certain thermal energy at lower fluid velocity require more heat exchange surface that will increase the cost of the heat exchanger.
Thus, it is important to find ways to improve the thermal efficiency of heat exchange equipment by selecting optimal geometric parameters providing the most efficient heat transfer.
The efficiency of heat transfer in STHE can be increased by restricting dead zones formed near the cross baffles because of which the pressure drop is increased without a corresponding increase in heat transfer coefficient.
The size of the dead zone depends on the baffle spacing and the baffle cut. Thus, the optimal ratio of parameters will reduce pressure drop.
This article presents the results of investigations of the influence of baffle spacing and baffle cut on the size of dead zone formed near the cross baffles using numerical simulation methods. It is showed the structure of an additional baffle plate which can be used to reduce the dead zone and smoother flow distribution over the cross section.