INDUSTRIAL OPTION FOR THE REALIZATION OF PRODUCING SYNTHETIC FUELS TECHNOLOGY IN THE FISHER-TROPSH PROCESS ON MODIFIED PILLAR CLAYS
In this paper we analyze the development of industrial Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technologies, starting from the 1940s, Rurchemie (under normal pressure), Hydrocol-1 technology, KeloggSynthol (boiling bed process), Arge, Sasol 1, Sasol 2 , Sasol 3 (circulating fluidized catalyst bed), Mossgas, Shell, Oryx GTL, and Pearl GTL (the world’s largest synthetic liquid fuel plant).
It is determined that the existing technologies are multi-stage, i.е. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, first long chain linear alkanes are obtained, which are further subjected to hydrocracking and hydroisomerization reactions to produce alkanes of isostructure.
The authors developed a technology for the preparation of iso-paraffins in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a bifunctional montmorillonite-based catalyst, intercalated with a polyvalent cation of zirconium impregnated with cobalt nitrate and promoted by organometallsiloxane-ruthenicironiumphenylsiloxane, as well as an industrial design of the process with its use.
EXTRACTION OF ISOPROPYLBENZENE FROM ABSORPTION GASES IN THE OXIDATION OF PRODUCTION OF PHENOL, ACETONE AND ALPHA−METHYLSTYRENE
The industry of the main organic synthesis is engaged in production of the major organic substances which are initial materials (intermediate products) for receiving more complex organic compounds or find independent application in the national economy. Isopropylbenzene is an intermediate product in production of phenol.
Isopropylbenzene is a typical aromatic compound. In industry, isopropylbenzene is obtained by catalytic alkylation of benzene with propylene, the reaction is complicated by the sequential introduction of alkyl radicals into the formed isopropylbenzene until hexaisopropylbenzene is obtained.
Isopropyl is a valuable commercial product, and on the other hand, a strong environmental pollutant. When excessive emissions isopropylbenzene above the norms of the enterprises of phenol production impose penalties.
In this paper the methods of extraction of isopropylbenzene absorption of gases from the production of phenol, acetone and alpha-methylstyrene, advantages and disadvantages of each method. We propose a combined method that is best on several indicators. Given a feasibility analysis to implement the methods in a particular industry.
In nowadays the chemical composition of modern motor fuels must be tightly regulated. This trend motivate the development of the process of sulfuric acid alkylation, which aimed at obtaining a high-octane components of gasoline – alkylate.
The catalyst for getting alkylbenzene is sulfuric of hydrofluoric acid. By the using these acids, we can get the production of high quality alkylate, with good selectivity and yield. But a significant disadvantage of liquid homogeneous catalysts is their corrosive activity and aggressiveness. These acids can be the reason of corrosion, equipment spoiling, leaks and humans burns.
This article describe the analysis of analytical systems (ionic liquids and zeolites), which can replace traditional homogeneous catalyst. Solid catalytic systems and ionic liquids are increasing yield, quality and safety at the workplace, because they don`t have liquid aggressive catalyst`s disadvantages.
The paper considers the potential dangers of sulfuric acid alkylation process and their impact on the life and health of personnel. This article considers the technological scheme of sulfuric acid alkylation process and the chemistry of the main reaction of getting alkylate. Methods for improving the safety of operation of the installation are proposed.
An analysis of pros and cons is made for heterogeneous catalysts and ionic liquids, which are an alternative substitute for sulfuric acid. The technological scheme of the alkylation process is described in the case of using solid catalysts.
The paper presents the results of studies of technology of residual residual bitumen and modified their Sakhalin crude oils. The main goal of the work-working out production technology of residual bitumen vacuum distillation of oil and improvement of physico-chemical properties of the obtained bitumen polymer modifiers. As a raw material used oil fuel oil vacuum distillation district deposits on Sakhalin Island. It is established that, in order to ensure the quality indicators in line with the requirements of GOST 22245-90, GOST 33133-14 and roadbitumen vacuum distillation of fuel oil is expedient to conduct the selection of vacuum Gasoil to 500 oC, and the resulting residue modify modern polymer modifiers, designed, which will increase the temperature of a softening and penetration.
To study the possibilities of obtaining modified road bitumen residue has been used residue vacuum distillation, with the beginning of boiling 500 oC. As a polymer modifier been selected styrene styrene-butadiene rubbers stamps KTR-101 and DST-30-01 in the amount of 2.0; 2.4 and 3.0 % of the mas. the residual bitumen. Analysis of the results of the research showed that the property received modified bitumen has improved properties, which are characterized by such indicators as the value of the elasticity, softening temperature, weight loss and softening temperature change after aging. It has been established that the introduction of polymer modifiers helps reduce residual penetration values of bitumen.
Research the possibility of obtaining modified residual bitumen from Sakhalin oil vacuum distillation of oil in line with the requirements of GOST 22245-90. Recommended formulations modified residue vacuum distillation for the production of road bitumen of mark BND 90/130 according to GOST 22245-90.
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is one of the most large-tonnage polymers produced in Russia and abroad. Production of PVC and products on its basis established more than 100 companies in 50 countries. In recent years, in the production of PVC products: pipes, profiles, including window films, sheets, PVC products, significant progress has been made. This is due to the development of technological processes of production, increase the level of development of equipment for the production of PVC products, quality of raw materials and the use of new compositions to achieve the required consumer properties of products. However, under normal conditions, the polyvinyl chloride of inherent low stability. Various effects cause a series of transformations in macromolecules of the PVC, causing the aging of materials and products during processing of PVC-compositions, storage and maintenance of materials and products based on it. The aging process is a combination of factors that cause changes in the properties of the polymer in time. Therefore, effective stabilization of polymer. The problem of stabilization is to preserve the original properties of polymeric materials in the aging process. In industry widely used as stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride are salts of lead, cadmium, barium. However, they are toxic, so the use of such stabilizers is limited. The toxicity of salts of organic and inorganic acids depends primarily on the metal. In accordance with the conclusion of the «Directive on chemicals for the plastics industry in the EU» stabilisers based on calcium and zinc are considered non-toxic. In order to implement this direction, we have developed a new multifunctional stabilizers for polyvinylchloride compositions. The optimum ratio of calcium and zinc salts of palmitic acid and glycerol monopalmitate in the multifunctional stabilizer providing high technological properties of PVC compositions while maintaining the basic physical-mechanical and operational characteristics of PVC products. Noted that when using a new multifunctional stabilizers observed increase in thermal stability and color stability of PVC materials.