This article reports the results of the study aimed to investigate the components of the crude Disulfide Oil (DSO) received from Tengiz Gas Processing Plant (Tengiz GPP). Based on the results of Mass Spectrometry and additional methods of quantum chemical analysis, DSO was determined to be a mixture of dialkylsulfides. Specifically, we were able to identify the presence of dimethyl-, methylethyl-, and diethylsulfides, with characteristic C2-C4 carbohydrate chain. Rational use of DSO components is essential for successful identification of disulfides. Identification of disulfides, in turn, is impossible without application of modern techniques of physicochemical and quantum chemical analysis.
This article reports the exit orderand additional physicochemical characteristics of investigated DSO components. Specifically, molecular parameters of investigated components were identified and were shown to have a following structure: Alk`-S`-S`-Alk“(I)-(III). Second Order Moller PlessetPertrubation Theory (MP2) was used to determine the geometry and electronic structure of Alk-S-S-Alk` (I)-(III) disulfides. Molecular and radical geometry optimization was carried out using the 6-31G* basis set. Additionally, determination of individual disulfide points was completed using the correlation-consistent Dunning`s basis set. Vibrational frequencies characteristic to S-S, S-H, and S-C bonds were also analyzed in investigated (I)-(III) disulfides, where each frequency was given an intensity value in the brackets.
Geometry and electron structure of investigated components in Disulfide Oil were calculated and results were used as a basis for theoretical investigation of chemical metamorphisms of these sulfide-containing organic compounds.
Therefore, by applying methods of Mass Spectrometry and quantum chemical analysis, we were able to successfully identify dialkylsulfidesin disulfide crude oil, with characteristic C2-C4 carbohydrate chains.
Accelerated pace of modern life contributes to the expansion of the car park attendant, incl. сars with diesel engine. As a result of this situation, in Europe diesel fuel consumption grows from year to year. Avoiding the problem of diesel fuel deficit will allow the fuel export from Russia, which, in turn, forces domestic manufacturers to produce products with European quality.
In this connection, the secondary processes that contribute to the deepening of oil refining and the bringing of commodity products to the current standards become more important. To date, the largest of the secondary processes remains hydrotreating – a process of removing from the oil products of heteroatoms as a result of hydrogenation with hydrogen-containing gas. However, motor fuels produced in Russia are lagging behind world standards of quality, the main reasons for it are: a backward production structure, a high degree of depreciation of fixed assets and a high level of energy consumption.
In the article various ways of modernization of operating plants of hydrotreating of diesel fuel which main purpose is an increase in depth of hydrodesulfurization of cleared raw materials without reducing the performance of the plant. Despite the different apparatus design of the presented methods, they are all directed to increase the contact time of the gas-raw mixture with the catalyst by the increase in the volume of the catalyst, and are limited by the need for appropriate modernization of the compressor equipment.
An alternative way to change the required residence time of the raw material being purified in the reactor is to increase the rate of hydrodesulfurization reactions by reducing their activation energy through the use of highly active catalysts. In addition, it is advisable to widely use the catalysts of the protective layer in order to avoid the formation of a crust on the border with the flow distributing material.
In this connection, and also taking into account the policy of import substitution at the Russian oil refineries, in the coming years, the urgency of the development of new domestic catalytic systems, methods for their production and activation will increase.
Automotive waste tires are rubber waste that because of their abrasion state, also known as “tire wear”, are not safe and unfit for further use in the vehicles. There is an enormous global problem to decomposition of waste rubber tires because of hazardous fumes are emitted during their incineration. A large amount of soot and toxic gases having high hazard classes I and II, benzopyrene, dioxins, furans, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, chromium, cadmium, etc. are released to contaminate air.
Each year in our country, the amount waste tires are increasing about 50-90 mln pcs. However, currently in Russia the total quantity of tires recycling does not exceed 17%. Thus we can say the problem of waste tires and rubber waste recycling is still relevant today and is of great ecological and economic importance.
This article presents the main ways to waste tires recycling. There is substantiated position to using mechanical methods during recycling of rubber waste from tires can be carried out by low-temperature grinding. The experimental results showed that proposed technology at low-temperature considerably reduces energy consumption, improves the separation of metal and textile from the rubber, rubber output increases.
The paper deals with an emergency and modeling the spread of gasoline vapor in the environment. The solution of the problem is realized on the example of gasoline hydrotreating unit L-24-300 refinery.
Analysis of emergency incidents in the field of oil refining in Russia and abroad showed that the most dangerous situation is the formation of explosive cloud (90% of all accidents). The consequences of fire or explosion at the location of technological equipment in the outdoor performance are of the global character.
The units and equipment are ranged on the main indicators – the number of accesses of the dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. To calculate the complex rank R according to the statistics of operation of oil refining equipment weight factors to determine the contribution of each indicator into an integrated rank were assessed. Besides operating indicators the residual value of the equipment, which will determine the direct damage in the event of fire or explosion, was taken into account.
Modelling of gasoline vapors dispersion was accomplished by UPRZA “Ecolog” program. The dissipate maps are built for the least favorable summer conditions for 4 wind speed variants: of 0,5 m / s to 10 m / s. A three-dimensional model for calculating a level of air pollution was built with the help of asymptotic transformations. A method of coordinate transformation into the asymptotic variable is shown. Simulation performed for settlements in the western and eastern areas with the highest-density related technological production plants.
This work considers the aspects of filler addition to the polymer materials.
Among the bulk polymers most interest present in the world production of PVC materials. The pure PVC is not used due to low thermal stability and high viscosity melts. It takes a targeted regulation of interaction of polymer and filler at the interface to provide a complex technological and physical-mechanical characteristics of the final filled PVC.
The filler is usually considered inorganic minerals (chalk, diatomaceous earth, zeolite, shungite, etc.). This rarely addresses issues targeted treatment of the filler surface.
To improve the thermal properties of the polymer in the article are encouraged to use Al-Mg-containing material – attapulgite. Analogous to addition of attapulgite to polyvinylchloride, this study offers alternative approach to use of composites. Modified polyvinylchloride has shown to improve interactions on the border line of the polymer-filler.
Special attention should be paid to the role of microscopic cellulose fibers as a composite material, as well as, composite mixer inside the polymer. Introduction of microcrystalline cellulose filled PVC attapulgite affects the softening temperature of the material. These results of roles of microcrystalline cellulose in a compatibilizer (modifier silicate fillers) offers great opportunities introduction of cheap mineral fillers.