Oktifine 480P catalyst, containing catalytic additives, is used on refineries in Ufa to boost light olefin production and increase gasoline octanes in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) process. Under the hydrothermal conditions present in the FCC regenerator (typically > 700 ºC and > 8 % steam), FCC catalysts partly deactivates. Zeolite undergoes to dealumination and partial structural collapse, thereby losing activity, micropore surface area, and has changes in selectivity. Fresh catalyst are added at appropriate respective levels to the FCC unit to keep overall targeted steady state activity and selectivity. To pin down change rate of the structure and catalytic properties of the catalyst after heat treatment a number of studies were done. For research, microspheric catalyst Oktifine 480P, produced on Ishimbay Specialized Chemical Plant of Catalysts, was exposed to thermal treatment under 700 ºС, 760 ºС, 800 ºС temperatures. ASTM D3907 standard feed was used for micro-activity cracking testing at 480 ºС. Fresh catalyst Oktifine 480P was very active at vacuum gasoil cracking, micro-activity was estimated to 90,3 %. The micro-activity of heat treated samples were slowly decreasing by temperature increasing but still very high to compare with micro-activity of equilibrated sample of catalyst. So micro-activities for thermal treated samples under 700 ºС, 760 ºС, 800 ºС were respectively 87,5 %, 85,2 %, 84 %, 85 % and micro-activity of equilibrated sample of catalyst was 42,4 %.
PROSPECTS OF HYDROCARBON RAW MATERIAL PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES DEVELOPMENT AT ANGOLA OIL REFINING INDUSTRY
The period of development of the Republic of Angola, which began in 2002 right after the end of the armed conflict, is characterized by a significant increase in consumption of the main types of petroleum products (gasolines, diesel fuels, jet fuel). In this case, the main export item of Angola is crude oil, and the necessary oil products are imported.
According to expert data, until 2020 the Republic of Angola will remain the leading oil producer in Africa. In this regard, at present the issue of determining the development trends of non-export variants for the use of hydrocarbon raw materials is topical.
Prospects for the development of the oil refining industry in Angola are related to the modernization of the Angola Refinery and the start of new projects (the construction of a new refinery for the processing of sulfuric oil extracted from deposits located in the Atlantic Ocean). It is advisable to design a catalytic cracking, hydrocracking and delayed coking units at the refinery under construction, which will allow to balance the consumption market for gas, gasoline and diesel fuel, and also to design plants for the thermal method of gas oil production by combining the units for conversion of residual and paraffinic distillate feedstocks.
One of the directions is the project of deep processing of crude oil with the maximum obtaining of components of motor fuels with improved environmental performances.
It is also necessary to improve the environmental performance of diesel fuel by developing less toxic engines with the use of catalytic converters, since the consumption of diesel-powered vehicles is now increasing in Angola.
The article presents the role of sulfur-reducing additives to catalytic cracking catalysts. It has been shown that the use of desulfurizing components directly within cracking reduces sulfur content without significant capital costs compared to various methods of reducing sulfur in cracking products. Data on import additives to industrial catalysts of cracking are given. Currently, no applying domestic desulfurizing additives has been mentioned in scientific and technical literature in open press.
A particular interest has been observed in mesoporous structured oxides as components of a carrier of components having an increased specific surface area, a large pore size compared with zeolites, as well as a high ability to absorb sulfur compounds achieved by varying acidity during synthesis. The catalyst activity is considered by applying the method of determination according to ASTM D3907-13. In the course of the examination, the effectiveness of using desulfurizing additives as a catalyst component for the removal of sulfur from raw materials was noted.
The analysis of study methods for microspheric catalysts used in a cracking process in a reactor with a stationary layer was carried out. When the reactor was loaded with a glass wool on the bottom, three equal portions of the catalyst were laid out layer by layer with the addition of quartz grit between the layers. The free space of the reactor was filled with quartz grit and covered with a small amount of glass wool. A shortcoming of this method is in a little volume of the reaction zone, a short feed time and an ineffective way of loading the catalyst. The non-uniform distribution of the catalyst bed leads to large errors in determining its activity. When the catalyst is loaded by mixing it with quartz grit in order to determine its activity in laboratory conditions, the results obtained are similar to those used in the operation of catalysts on an industrial plant. According to the data results it was defined that the catalyst is be loaded into the reactor by mixing it with quartz granules with particle sizes of 1 mm in the ratio of a catalyst to a granule as 1:2, which corresponds to a more uniform distribution of the catalyst volume along the length of the reactor and provides less errors in determining the activity and greater volumetric feed rate.
INDUSTRIAL OPTION FOR THE REALIZATION OF PRODUCING SYNTHETIC FUELS TECHNOLOGY IN THE FISHER-TROPSH PROCESS ON MODIFIED PILLAR CLAYS
In this paper we analyze the development of industrial Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technologies, starting from the 1940s, Rurchemie (under normal pressure), Hydrocol-1 technology, KeloggSynthol (boiling bed process), Arge, Sasol 1, Sasol 2 , Sasol 3 (circulating fluidized catalyst bed), Mossgas, Shell, Oryx GTL, and Pearl GTL (the world’s largest synthetic liquid fuel plant).
It is determined that the existing technologies are multi-stage, i.е. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, first long chain linear alkanes are obtained, which are further subjected to hydrocracking and hydroisomerization reactions to produce alkanes of isostructure.
The authors developed a technology for the preparation of iso-paraffins in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using a bifunctional montmorillonite-based catalyst, intercalated with a polyvalent cation of zirconium impregnated with cobalt nitrate and promoted by organometallsiloxane-ruthenicironiumphenylsiloxane, as well as an industrial design of the process with its use.
EXTRACTION OF ISOPROPYLBENZENE FROM ABSORPTION GASES IN THE OXIDATION OF PRODUCTION OF PHENOL, ACETONE AND ALPHA−METHYLSTYRENE
The industry of the main organic synthesis is engaged in production of the major organic substances which are initial materials (intermediate products) for receiving more complex organic compounds or find independent application in the national economy. Isopropylbenzene is an intermediate product in production of phenol.
Isopropylbenzene is a typical aromatic compound. In industry, isopropylbenzene is obtained by catalytic alkylation of benzene with propylene, the reaction is complicated by the sequential introduction of alkyl radicals into the formed isopropylbenzene until hexaisopropylbenzene is obtained.
Isopropyl is a valuable commercial product, and on the other hand, a strong environmental pollutant. When excessive emissions isopropylbenzene above the norms of the enterprises of phenol production impose penalties.
In this paper the methods of extraction of isopropylbenzene absorption of gases from the production of phenol, acetone and alpha-methylstyrene, advantages and disadvantages of each method. We propose a combined method that is best on several indicators. Given a feasibility analysis to implement the methods in a particular industry.