The paper deals with an emergency and modeling the spread of gasoline vapor in the environment. The solution of the problem is realized on the example of gasoline hydrotreating unit L-24-300 refinery.
Analysis of emergency incidents in the field of oil refining in Russia and abroad showed that the most dangerous situation is the formation of explosive cloud (90% of all accidents). The consequences of fire or explosion at the location of technological equipment in the outdoor performance are of the global character.
The units and equipment are ranged on the main indicators – the number of accesses of the dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. To calculate the complex rank R according to the statistics of operation of oil refining equipment weight factors to determine the contribution of each indicator into an integrated rank were assessed. Besides operating indicators the residual value of the equipment, which will determine the direct damage in the event of fire or explosion, was taken into account.
Modelling of gasoline vapors dispersion was accomplished by UPRZA “Ecolog” program. The dissipate maps are built for the least favorable summer conditions for 4 wind speed variants: of 0,5 m / s to 10 m / s. A three-dimensional model for calculating a level of air pollution was built with the help of asymptotic transformations. A method of coordinate transformation into the asymptotic variable is shown. Simulation performed for settlements in the western and eastern areas with the highest-density related technological production plants.
This work considers the aspects of filler addition to the polymer materials.
Among the bulk polymers most interest present in the world production of PVC materials. The pure PVC is not used due to low thermal stability and high viscosity melts. It takes a targeted regulation of interaction of polymer and filler at the interface to provide a complex technological and physical-mechanical characteristics of the final filled PVC.
The filler is usually considered inorganic minerals (chalk, diatomaceous earth, zeolite, shungite, etc.). This rarely addresses issues targeted treatment of the filler surface.
To improve the thermal properties of the polymer in the article are encouraged to use Al-Mg-containing material – attapulgite. Analogous to addition of attapulgite to polyvinylchloride, this study offers alternative approach to use of composites. Modified polyvinylchloride has shown to improve interactions on the border line of the polymer-filler.
Special attention should be paid to the role of microscopic cellulose fibers as a composite material, as well as, composite mixer inside the polymer. Introduction of microcrystalline cellulose filled PVC attapulgite affects the softening temperature of the material. These results of roles of microcrystalline cellulose in a compatibilizer (modifier silicate fillers) offers great opportunities introduction of cheap mineral fillers.
The last decade remains urgent a problem of processing of the associated petroleum gas (APG) at the domestic oil-extracting enterprises, including in regions with severe Arctic climate. APG is the integral element in the course of oil production.
For the last decade Russia came to a leading place in the world by the number of combustion of APG in oil-field torches. It happens, generally because of an unprofitable economic position as the price of the APG realized for further processing in the form of fuel or energy is low.
On the structure and APG properties does not concede to natural gas and has wider scope of application. With light crude usually extract more fat gases, with heavy naphtha – generally residue gases. The value of gas increases with increase in content of hydrocarbons in its structure. At division of casing-head gas ethane and other narrow fractions useful to the industry receive such products as the residue stripped gas (RSG), the long distillate of light hydrocarbons (LDLH), gas engine fuel, stable natural gasoline, the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Also helium, nitrogen, sulfur compounds can be emitted.
For efficient realization of actions for processing of APG it is offered to introduce a disposal system and rational use of associated petroleum gas which can be applied at working off of oil fields in extreme climatic conditions to increase in effectiveness of operation of fields due to the most complete utilization and use of associated petroleum gas.
Effective and rational use of hydrocarbonic resources, as well as introduction of innovative technologies, considerably will strengthen and will raise oil and gas-oil branch of Russia on new level.
Modern industrial cleaning method of hydrocarbons from the mercaptan is their oxidation in an alkaline medium with molecular oxygen to dialkyl disulfides (forming a disulfide oil).
In Tengiz GPP disulfide oil is introduced into the commodity oil, and it is with the oil arrives at the refinery, which has negative consequences – results in an increase of total sulfur content in the commodity oil, promotes corrosion of equipment both at transportation and at the subsequent processing of the oil in relation to possible conversions of disulphides in mercaptans under thermal exposure or other factors at oil refining.
This paper describes physicochemical characteristics of the crude Disulfide Oil (DSO) substitutes obtained from the Tengiz Gas Processing Plant (Tengiz GPP). DSO is characterized as a mixture of following compounds (substitutes): dimethyldisulfides, methylethyldisulfides and diethyldisulfides.
The chemical properties of disulfides determined by low strength disulfide bond. Many reducing agents, such as NaHSO3, metal hydrides, atomic hydrogen easily recovered disulfides to thiols. Many reactions disulfide petroleum origin occur during activation and cleavage of -S-S- bonds, therefore the study the geometric and electronic structure of disulfide and the nature of -S-S- bond is important in predicting the reactivity of these compounds.
Throughout the course of the study, we were able to investigate properties of DSO substitutes, where physicochemical characteristics of these compounds were determined and addressed in the paper. Additionally, quantum chemical calculations were carried out based on the Density Functional Theory (B3LYP variation) using the 6-31G* and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Therefore, we were able to successfully determine configuration of the DSO substitutes in their main electron state, identify the geometry of the substitutes, as well as, calculate their electron and energy configurations.
ON THE CHOICE OF RAW MATERIALS PREPARATION TECHNOLOGY FOR CATALYTIC CRACKING JSC «GAZPROM NEFTEKHIM SALAVAT»
There is a tendency to use in the processes of hydrocracking and catalytic cracking weighted feedstock (deep vacuum gas oils, DAO, fuel oil and even tar) for the problem solution to deepen oil processing. Rapid catalyst poisoning weighted raw material leads to a deterioration quality of products and reduce turnaround facilities. These factors have stimulated interest for the pre-treatment of raw material processes. It allows to obtain materials with improved characteristics.
The work is devoted to the choice of the most efficient and economic expediency raw feedstock preparation technology for the construction of a catalytic cracking unit at JSC «Gazprom neftekhim Salavat». We offer to use heavy oil residues (tar installation CDU-AVT-6) as a component of the raw feedstock of the process after their preparation, that will increase the depth of oil refining.
We considered technologies such as thermal adsorption tar deasphalting, tar deasphalting with hydrodesulphurization DAO, hydrodesulphurization tar in «bin» type reactor and hydrodesulphurization tar with a three-phase fluidized catalyst bed. Material balances processes was represented in the work. We used as the raw material tar with an initial boiling point > 520 °C for calculations. Performance settings defined in 1623600 tons / year, which corresponds to the development of tar on the installation CDU-AVT-6 OJSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat». Also in the work were represented product quality assessment calculation of technical and economic indicators product quality.
It found that the technology of hydrocracking tar with a three-phase fluidized catalyst bed like «H-oil» can be the most advantageous process for the preparation of catalytic cracking feedstock JSC «Gazprom neftekhim Salavat» from tar mixture of Western Siberian oil and rational use of the received light fractions and residue This technology has a number of advantages: a high yield of low-sulfur distillate products, the possibility of deep processing of oil residues and other heavy hydrocarbons, to obtain high quality raw materials for catalytic cracking and coking processes, safety, reliability, ease of installation. The cost price of production will be about 9300 rub./ t.