In nowadays the chemical composition of modern motor fuels must be tightly regulated. This trend motivate the development of the process of sulfuric acid alkylation, which aimed at obtaining a high-octane components of gasoline – alkylate.
The catalyst for getting alkylbenzene is sulfuric of hydrofluoric acid. By the using these acids, we can get the production of high quality alkylate, with good selectivity and yield. But a significant disadvantage of liquid homogeneous catalysts is their corrosive activity and aggressiveness. These acids can be the reason of corrosion, equipment spoiling, leaks and humans burns.
This article describe the analysis of analytical systems (ionic liquids and zeolites), which can replace traditional homogeneous catalyst. Solid catalytic systems and ionic liquids are increasing yield, quality and safety at the workplace, because they don`t have liquid aggressive catalyst`s disadvantages.
The paper considers the potential dangers of sulfuric acid alkylation process and their impact on the life and health of personnel. This article considers the technological scheme of sulfuric acid alkylation process and the chemistry of the main reaction of getting alkylate. Methods for improving the safety of operation of the installation are proposed.
An analysis of pros and cons is made for heterogeneous catalysts and ionic liquids, which are an alternative substitute for sulfuric acid. The technological scheme of the alkylation process is described in the case of using solid catalysts.
The paper presents the results of studies of technology of residual residual bitumen and modified their Sakhalin crude oils. The main goal of the work-working out production technology of residual bitumen vacuum distillation of oil and improvement of physico-chemical properties of the obtained bitumen polymer modifiers. As a raw material used oil fuel oil vacuum distillation district deposits on Sakhalin Island. It is established that, in order to ensure the quality indicators in line with the requirements of GOST 22245-90, GOST 33133-14 and roadbitumen vacuum distillation of fuel oil is expedient to conduct the selection of vacuum Gasoil to 500 oC, and the resulting residue modify modern polymer modifiers, designed, which will increase the temperature of a softening and penetration.
To study the possibilities of obtaining modified road bitumen residue has been used residue vacuum distillation, with the beginning of boiling 500 oC. As a polymer modifier been selected styrene styrene-butadiene rubbers stamps KTR-101 and DST-30-01 in the amount of 2.0; 2.4 and 3.0 % of the mas. the residual bitumen. Analysis of the results of the research showed that the property received modified bitumen has improved properties, which are characterized by such indicators as the value of the elasticity, softening temperature, weight loss and softening temperature change after aging. It has been established that the introduction of polymer modifiers helps reduce residual penetration values of bitumen.
Research the possibility of obtaining modified residual bitumen from Sakhalin oil vacuum distillation of oil in line with the requirements of GOST 22245-90. Recommended formulations modified residue vacuum distillation for the production of road bitumen of mark BND 90/130 according to GOST 22245-90.
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) is one of the most large-tonnage polymers produced in Russia and abroad. Production of PVC and products on its basis established more than 100 companies in 50 countries. In recent years, in the production of PVC products: pipes, profiles, including window films, sheets, PVC products, significant progress has been made. This is due to the development of technological processes of production, increase the level of development of equipment for the production of PVC products, quality of raw materials and the use of new compositions to achieve the required consumer properties of products. However, under normal conditions, the polyvinyl chloride of inherent low stability. Various effects cause a series of transformations in macromolecules of the PVC, causing the aging of materials and products during processing of PVC-compositions, storage and maintenance of materials and products based on it. The aging process is a combination of factors that cause changes in the properties of the polymer in time. Therefore, effective stabilization of polymer. The problem of stabilization is to preserve the original properties of polymeric materials in the aging process. In industry widely used as stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride are salts of lead, cadmium, barium. However, they are toxic, so the use of such stabilizers is limited. The toxicity of salts of organic and inorganic acids depends primarily on the metal. In accordance with the conclusion of the «Directive on chemicals for the plastics industry in the EU» stabilisers based on calcium and zinc are considered non-toxic. In order to implement this direction, we have developed a new multifunctional stabilizers for polyvinylchloride compositions. The optimum ratio of calcium and zinc salts of palmitic acid and glycerol monopalmitate in the multifunctional stabilizer providing high technological properties of PVC compositions while maintaining the basic physical-mechanical and operational characteristics of PVC products. Noted that when using a new multifunctional stabilizers observed increase in thermal stability and color stability of PVC materials.
This article reports the results of the study aimed to investigate the components of the crude Disulfide Oil (DSO) received from Tengiz Gas Processing Plant (Tengiz GPP). Based on the results of Mass Spectrometry and additional methods of quantum chemical analysis, DSO was determined to be a mixture of dialkylsulfides. Specifically, we were able to identify the presence of dimethyl-, methylethyl-, and diethylsulfides, with characteristic C2-C4 carbohydrate chain. Rational use of DSO components is essential for successful identification of disulfides. Identification of disulfides, in turn, is impossible without application of modern techniques of physicochemical and quantum chemical analysis.
This article reports the exit orderand additional physicochemical characteristics of investigated DSO components. Specifically, molecular parameters of investigated components were identified and were shown to have a following structure: Alk`-S`-S`-Alk“(I)-(III). Second Order Moller PlessetPertrubation Theory (MP2) was used to determine the geometry and electronic structure of Alk-S-S-Alk` (I)-(III) disulfides. Molecular and radical geometry optimization was carried out using the 6-31G* basis set. Additionally, determination of individual disulfide points was completed using the correlation-consistent Dunning`s basis set. Vibrational frequencies characteristic to S-S, S-H, and S-C bonds were also analyzed in investigated (I)-(III) disulfides, where each frequency was given an intensity value in the brackets.
Geometry and electron structure of investigated components in Disulfide Oil were calculated and results were used as a basis for theoretical investigation of chemical metamorphisms of these sulfide-containing organic compounds.
Therefore, by applying methods of Mass Spectrometry and quantum chemical analysis, we were able to successfully identify dialkylsulfidesin disulfide crude oil, with characteristic C2-C4 carbohydrate chains.
Accelerated pace of modern life contributes to the expansion of the car park attendant, incl. сars with diesel engine. As a result of this situation, in Europe diesel fuel consumption grows from year to year. Avoiding the problem of diesel fuel deficit will allow the fuel export from Russia, which, in turn, forces domestic manufacturers to produce products with European quality.
In this connection, the secondary processes that contribute to the deepening of oil refining and the bringing of commodity products to the current standards become more important. To date, the largest of the secondary processes remains hydrotreating – a process of removing from the oil products of heteroatoms as a result of hydrogenation with hydrogen-containing gas. However, motor fuels produced in Russia are lagging behind world standards of quality, the main reasons for it are: a backward production structure, a high degree of depreciation of fixed assets and a high level of energy consumption.
In the article various ways of modernization of operating plants of hydrotreating of diesel fuel which main purpose is an increase in depth of hydrodesulfurization of cleared raw materials without reducing the performance of the plant. Despite the different apparatus design of the presented methods, they are all directed to increase the contact time of the gas-raw mixture with the catalyst by the increase in the volume of the catalyst, and are limited by the need for appropriate modernization of the compressor equipment.
An alternative way to change the required residence time of the raw material being purified in the reactor is to increase the rate of hydrodesulfurization reactions by reducing their activation energy through the use of highly active catalysts. In addition, it is advisable to widely use the catalysts of the protective layer in order to avoid the formation of a crust on the border with the flow distributing material.
In this connection, and also taking into account the policy of import substitution at the Russian oil refineries, in the coming years, the urgency of the development of new domestic catalytic systems, methods for their production and activation will increase.