Society. Social problems. Sustainable development
Relevance of research undertaken in the article, is dictated by the characteristics of philosophical reflection on the empirical regularities of changes in the social status of the family. Our ideal representations about a family differ from family practice in modern Russia that speaks about slow character of transformation of informal restrictions in structure of institutional transformations. All the social issues of the day invariably affect the family, are refracted by its moral orientations, which today can be described as contradictory and complex. Therefore, the changes that have occurred in the area of family relations, provoked a lot of debate about the future of the family as a social institution, which plays an important role in the reproduction of the population, the socialization of individuals, their moral and physical well-being and life fulfillment. Relevance of research undertaken in this paper is dictated by the peculiarities of philosophical reflection on the empirical regularities of changes in the social status of the family.
Methodological foundations of reforming the system of technical regulation in the petroleum sector of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus
The conceptual directions of technical regulation system reforming of oil and gas industry in Ukraine, Belarus, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Armenia and Georgia, developed by a group of experts of the TACIS project «Harmonization of oil and gas standards and practices in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus” are presented in the article. These directions represent the frame of references and describe the recommended strategy for technical regulation subjects’ actions in the oil and gas industries of identified countries, which are designed to convert them, and to harmonize with the technical regulation systems, developed in these countries, and established international practice. Solutions to the problem of technical regulation system’s information support in the industry are given.
So far development of the automobile transport was accompanied by means of change of the composition quantity of the oil fuel. From the moment of the invention of the internal combustion engines of the carburetor type was began the era of the use benzene of the motor oil, which was became the general product of oil refining. The invention of engines with high degrees of compression required fuel with the sufficient anti-detonation characteristics. In connection with that fact there was a tendency to gradual substitution of pure benzene with mixed benzene. Such additions as benzole, tetraethyllead and alcohol served as antidetonation dopants. The creation of such cracking-systems allowed to increase octane numbers of benzene. At the end of the 19th century the invention of the new diesel engine leed to the creation of another type of motor fuel. Diesel engines burned oil fuel. Thus, at the first half of the 20th century oil fuel took first place among motor fuel of all sorts on the foreign market.