Tag Archives: analysis
Refineries can have harmful effects on the health and lives of the population and the interests of society and the state, as well as environmental conditions. This is confirmed by the dynamics of accidents of industrial injuries with fatal outcome for 2004-2014 according to the report of Rostekhnadzor. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of accidents and injuries in the refining facilities, as well as bringing recommendations to reduce them. Distribution of accidents and deaths has spasmodic character. The maximum values of accidents and injuries fatalities for the years 2004-2014 on the PBO refining are shown in the data for 2014, which relate to the change in legislation in the field of occupational safety and health (OT) – the introduction of a new classification of the GRO, namely, the division into four classes danger from class I – extremely high risk to the class IV – low hazard. Hazard affect the requirements for public benefit. RTN Evidence suggests that one of the main technical causes of accidents in the oil refining enterprises is the lack of funds or inoperable emergency protection. The main organizational causes of accidents are poorly organized production control (PC), a low level of industrial safety expertise (PB) employees of enterprises. There is a lack of proper performance of their duties the employees PC services, failure to experts duties, decreased attention to the heads of organizations on PB. In this connection it is necessary to focus on those areas in PB and OT on refining enterprises, namely, to ensure the proper level of knowledge of employees of PB achieved training and periodic testing of knowledge in the PB.
The article presents statistical data on accidents and occupational injuries fatal, analyzed in detail the reasons for the changes in their values, the ways of reducing the risk of damage and injury to workers’ health; emergencies.
The life safety issues currently in the Russian Federation and throughout the civilized world are one of the highest priority, as the life and health of citizens is the most important property of any state. In this regard, the security of both population and territory is one of the main tasks of the state. It requires the government to study the causes of accidents and disasters, to develop and improve the prevention of technogenic emergencies and deal with their forecasting. Emergency prevention, early intervention to reduce their risk, are events whose purpose is the preservation of home values of any state life and health of people. The study of the causes of emergency situations, the consideration of the past experience helps in the prevention of accidents in production, recovers the emergence and recurrence of disasters. On the basis of these tasks is a lot of different measures to prevent technogenic emergency situations of various character. The authors analyzed the effectiveness of these measures and determined the dependence of their number in our country in recent years, with the help of correlation analysis. Installed the dependence, equations of regression lines to predict and shows the effectiveness of the measures. The decrease in the values of emergencies is the life of the citizens of the country. Therefore preventive measures along with national research in this area will help to keep the main richness of the state life and health of, statistics, analysis.
In the article, the company pipeline transport of hydrocarbons is considered a system approach. On the basis of formal analysis concludes that the possibility of providing pipeline transport enterprise in the form of an integrated production system, in which staff interact, equipment and gas or oil. Further, based on the principles of interaction of system-wide production system “pipeline transport enterprise” and the Environment (entrostat) provides recommendations to improve the safety of this type of industrial production. Thus, increasing the degree of safety of operation of pipelines requires increasing the critical level of the organization, “the company pipeline transport” system as a whole, which is achieved by increasing its degree of openness. It is recommended to pay special attention to information transparency pipeline transport enterprises (meaning openness of statistics on accidents, openness to new ideas to improve safety and technology, interest in a comprehensive scientific study of companies operating pipelines, etc.). The conclusion is that all attempts to reduce the entropy of the system, “the company pipeline transport” (ie, to reduce the number of accidents) without increasing its degree of openness will lead to an increase in entropy of the system with its subsequent return to the level of critical value.
At the end of the article shows the results of the information and entropy analysis of technical systems “gas pumping unit”, operated in RAO “Gazprom” and “gasoline tank farm” is part of the business of mineral oil transportation.
COGNITIVE TECHNOLOGIES IN DECISION-MAKING ON THE EXAMPLE OF PETROCHEMICAL AND REFINING INDUSTRIES BY TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS
The life cycle of enterprise structure, its rise and fall is directly dependent on the time of decision-making. Decision-making – is the main link in the process control.
This article focuses on cognitive, educational technologies that contribute to the acquisition of information to meet the challenges posed to the leadership of petrochemical and refinery transnational corporation. Cognitive Technology – information technology is specifically targeted at the development of intellectual abilities such as a) perception; b) memory; c) formation of concepts; d) the solution of problems; d) imagination; e) logic. To improve the ability of thinking affect components such as: property rights, self-esteem, knowledge and strategy to deal with memory. Knowledge – the most important factor aggregate information acquired as a result of life, its transmission, and the use of a result of the decision.
To improve the business of the company is invited to assign responsibilities for its development in the individuals taking responsibility and seeking to make managerial decisions – managers and analysts. The article presents the technology of cognitive analysis, for which the manager-analyst is able to identify problems and solve them quickly in a highly competitive market. An example of SWOT and analysis for the STEEPLE-venture refinery and petrochemical multinationals. In its work, the manager–analyst, using automated control systems in real time, combines the mental activity and matches the information processing, calculations and logic operations using computer technology, information networks and modern information technologies, makes management decisions to prolong the life cycle of the organization.
In order to lower the risks in the processes of field development and waterflooding systems planning geologic and simulation models are built on the base of core material examinations, geophysical well logging (GWL) and seismic survey, flow well test (FWT), downhole samples. The crucial moment in simulation is the integration of all methods available of data obtaining that will allow constructing the best detailed and accurate geologic and simulation model, as the disadvantages of one method are compensated by the advantages of another and allow forming the notion of the object under study. The given article is devoted to studying causes of variety of uncertainties that arise during construction of geologic and simulation field model.
Within the work the causes of arising uncertainties have been classified according to the type of measurement (direct or indirect), the scope of research by area, the vertical resolution capacity, and according to the nature of uncertainties causes. They, in turn, are subdivided into measurement problems (equipment error and non-compliance with measurement procedures) and problems of application in modeling (interpretation problems and problems of constructing the model).
In order to reduce uncertainties we can define two possible ways. The first is minimisation of uncertainties in the frames of a separate method. The second way is the integration of all available information in a manner of reducing the uncertainty band by means of measurement’s mutual constraints, imposed on each other, i.e. the use of complex system approach to applying initial data obtained by different methods.
Instant assessment of field-geologic information and taking it into consideration when correcting geologic and simulation model allow producer to acquire practical instrument for operating and, if necessary, adjusting field development process, which includes taking into account location of the zones of remaining oil reserves the possibility for developing scenarios of enhancing reservoirs’ recovery, performing justified calculations of forecasts of production and financial risks reduction.