Tag Archives: авария
ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR CALCULATING OF EXPLOSION AFTERMATH ON ESPECIALLY DANGEROUS INDUSTRIAL OBJECTS
Estimation methods of consequences to explosion of a fuel-air mixture are considered. Simulating of an air-fuel mixture explosion of real accidents and experiments was based on this methods by software products PV-Safety and TOXI+Risk has been performed. Zones of damage to buildings and structures because of explosions has been determined. A comparative analysis of the actual values of the explosion consequences in the event of accidents and experimental values with calculated data obtained by the programs TOXI+Risk and PV-Safety was completed. Based on this analysis it was concluded that the results of estimating the radii of damage zones of buildings and structures obtained by these software products are significantly overstated. The greatest deviation from the actual and the experimental values was revealed by using the PV-Safety program. Method based on fuel-air mixture explosion model does not consider the explosive transformation mode, the aggregate state of the hazardous substance, the characteristics of the surrounding space and the position of the point of initiation of the explosion. These deficiencies are lack in the method that used in TOXI+Risk for assessing the consequences explosions. Nevertheless, the radiuses of damage zones of buildings and structures obtained with TOXI+Risk exceed the values of the actual radii in the explosion by an average of 18 %. Thus, the methods for calculating the consequences of the explosion require further investigation.
In article we analyze the possible causes of emergence and development of emergency situations taking into account failures and malfunctions of equipment, possibility of human errors, external impacts of natural character. The analysis of possible scenarios of occurrence and development of emergencies in technological blocks is carried out. Application of a method of the analysis of dangers of technological object on danger degree is proved. The design procedure of quantity of steams of the gasoline participating in creation of hit hard factors at ordinary filling by the closed stream of the railway tank is offered. Justified discrete process of forming layers of gasoline when filling the railway tank-car. Volumes of steams of gasoline forced out through a mouth of the tank for different weather conditions are calculated. The estimation of a condition of occurrence of explosion of an air mix of oil products in territory a railway loading rack is given. For an estimation of degree of danger of a real railway loading rack on which filling oil products in railway tank it is carried out with deviations from obligatory requirements of Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety the diagramme “reason-consequence” is developed. On its basis the analysis and a quantitative estimation of risk of failures is made for ordinary filling by the closed stream of the railway tank. Application of an offered technique allows at performance of complex inspection of an actual state of a bulk-oil railway loading rack into account presence of deviations from obligatory requirements of Federal norms and rules in the field of industrial safety to receive the objective information on the basis of a quantitative estimation of risk about a condition of industrial safety on object.
ACCOUNTING OF FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE PERSON IN CASE OF THE ADMISSION TO WORKS FOR RISK DECREASE IN WELLS CONSTRUCTION
Statistical data on accident rate on objects of an oil and gas complex confirm a high role of “a human factor” in the causes and escalation of emergencies. Scientific research in the field of influence decrease of a human factor on accident rate is directed as to creation of modern imitating and training systems, improvement of procedures of professional selection, as to assessment of working conditions and a current functional state of the person in a working environment. At risk management in aspect of a human factor the main emphasis is placed on assessment of competences of personnel, their formation and development. Assessment of competences of the candidate – the first thing that the person faces at the device on hazardous production facility. Assessment procedure can be expressed in the form of an interview, passing of testing, an examination during the solution of the offered tasks. At the same time actually there is no assessment of a state in which the examinee is.
Article is devoted to the assessment of influence of a person’s current functional state on risks of emergencies on objects of an oil and gas complex. The hazardous production facility chosen for an experiment is described, assessment procedure is also given. Results of assessment of risk according to which it is possible to draw a conclusion that the reason of development and escalation of 20 % of emergencies on the chosen hazardous production facility of an oil and gas complex is the non-optimal current functional state of personnel of an object, responsible for safe functioning. Carrying out this analysis allows to reveal also the concrete factor of a functional condition of the person having negative effect on indicators of safe functioning of hazardous production facility. Identification of negative factors is a basis for development of methods of psychological ensuring activity of personnel of hazardous production facility and also improvement of procedures of professional selection and the admission to works of the increased danger in an oil and gas complex.
THE ANALYSIS OF DANGERS, ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF ACCIDENTS ON HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITY AND THE RECOMMENDATION ABOUT THE CHOICE OF METHODS OF THE ANALYSIS OF RISK
High level of threat of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature and tendency of growth of quantity and scales of consequences of emergency situations require to expect future threats, risks and dangers, to apply methods of their forecast and prevention.
In article the main questions connected with the analysis of dangers, a risk assessment are considered. It is shown that a main objective of risk analysis of accidents is establishment of degree of emergency danger of hazardous production facilities and (or) its components for the advance prevention of threats of damnification of life, to human health, harm to animals, plants, environment, safety of the state, property of physical persons and legal entities, the state-owned or municipal property, threats of emergence of accidents and (or) emergency situations of technogenic nature, development, planned implementation and timely adjustment of reasonable recommendations about decrease in risk of accidents
Methodical the basics on carrying out the analysis of dangers and risk assessments of accidents on hazardous production facilities are covered. Methods of risk analysis of accidents are described and analysed. Recommendations about the choice of methods for different types of activities and the main stages of lifecycle of dangerous production process are provided.
The quantitative risk assessment of accidents is characterized by calculation of several indicators of risk and can also include one or several above-mentioned methods (or to use their results) and allows to estimate and compare various dangers and hazardous production facilities on single indicators and is most effective.
In the structure of the mineral – raw material base of Russian oil is increasing the proportion of hard-to-reserves, which by some estimates is currently about 60% of all open oil reserves of the country . Since the active reserves are produced quickly enough to compensate for this factor must be at the expense of hard-to-stock. That is necessary to increase the volume of drilling and apply new technologies for the production of hard-to-stock. There are many technologies for the production of stranded by increasing injectivity of injection wells and production wells intensification of work. One of the main methods to increase injectivity of injection wells and the intensification of work of oil wells is hydraulic fracturing, for which you want a fairly large amount of equipment and personnel. The method is to increase the existing and creation of new held high cracks in the reservoir for fluid flow to the bottom of the well. Upon stimulation of the well by this method is extended her life and production rate increases. With the development of this method in Russia, frequent accidents, for example, open spouting wells after hydraulic fracturing and resulting in injury and death of workers. The current situation makes it necessary to increase the level of supervision of the operation of hydraulic fracturing and proper operation of the equipment used.
In this article the events that are associated with an increase in safety when developing wells after fracturing operation.