Tag Archives: corrosion
High requirements apply to safe exploitation of oil trunk pipelines. Safe exploitation of oil trunk pipelines significantly mentions not only system of oil transportation, but also others adjacent systems. So, for example, safety inhibition active oil trunk pipelines owing to his damage may cause the stop of oil pumping from oil extraction spot to oil refining spot with violation of normal operating modes manufacturing plants of recovering and refining oil. Acceptance of evidence-based technical and technology solutions in design stages, high-quality building and strict observance of rules of technical operation ensure safety of operation on a production object. Properties of metal of pipes and the equipment of the main oil pipelines, their intense deformed state, the environment and properties of the pumped-over oil form parameters of safe operation of objects. Increase in level of mechanical tension in a wall of pipes and the equipment, change of tension in size and the sign, increase in frequency of these changes negatively influence safety of operation of the oil pipeline. Corrosive attack of the pumped-over product and the environment to metal of pipes and the equipment and also power impact of the environment on them reduce safety at operation of a construction. During long operation of pipelines there is a gradual deterioration in metal properties of pipes and the equipment and also accumulation of the defects leading to decrease in their safety. Safety of pipelines in the course of their operation can be reached by renovation, reconstruction, periodic determination of the actual technical condition and timely carrying out repair. Carrying out repair work is the most widely used way of safety during operation of the main oil pipelines. Repair of the main oil pipeline, owing to its design features and the rigid mode of operation, is rather difficult process demanding considerable expenses. There is a number of methods and means of repair of the main oil pipelines increasing industrial production safety. At the same time, the analysis of methods and means of repair shows need of their further improvement. The main directions of improvement of repair of pipes with use of couplings are given.
In nowadays the chemical composition of modern motor fuels must be tightly regulated. This trend motivate the development of the process of sulfuric acid alkylation, which aimed at obtaining a high-octane components of gasoline – alkylate.
The catalyst for getting alkylbenzene is sulfuric of hydrofluoric acid. By the using these acids, we can get the production of high quality alkylate, with good selectivity and yield. But a significant disadvantage of liquid homogeneous catalysts is their corrosive activity and aggressiveness. These acids can be the reason of corrosion, equipment spoiling, leaks and humans burns.
This article describe the analysis of analytical systems (ionic liquids and zeolites), which can replace traditional homogeneous catalyst. Solid catalytic systems and ionic liquids are increasing yield, quality and safety at the workplace, because they don`t have liquid aggressive catalyst`s disadvantages.
The paper considers the potential dangers of sulfuric acid alkylation process and their impact on the life and health of personnel. This article considers the technological scheme of sulfuric acid alkylation process and the chemistry of the main reaction of getting alkylate. Methods for improving the safety of operation of the installation are proposed.
An analysis of pros and cons is made for heterogeneous catalysts and ionic liquids, which are an alternative substitute for sulfuric acid. The technological scheme of the alkylation process is described in the case of using solid catalysts.
PREPARATION OF SPECIALISTS ON ANTICORROSIVE DEFENCE OF OIL AND GAS EQUIPMENT IN UFA STATE PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Many years of experience in operating the equipment oil and gas properties shows that one of the main problems in the production, preparation, transport and processing industry products is a failure or destruction of pipelines, components and assemblies due to corrosion. Corrosion – a spontaneous destruction of metals and alloys as a result of a chemical, electrochemical or physico-chemical interaction with the environment. Intense corrosion in the oil and gas industry is subject to: oilfield equipment (well, teams of collectors, etc.), pipelines for the transport of oil, gas and water (pipelines, water pipelines), equipment for the oil and gas storage (tanks, gas tanks, etc.), refinery, petrochemical equipment, and more. al.
As a result, corrosion occurs depressurization of equipment and pipelines, which could lead to the loss of raw materials, simple equipment, fire or explosion, environmental pollution.
In this regard, of particular relevance for the oil and gas industry acquires staffing the engineering corps of large enterprises highly qualified specialists in the field of protection of metals from corrosion. The Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) train specialists in the profession since 1981. Currently, after the bachelor on a profile “technique corrosion protection of equipment and facilities” (BMK), students can continue their studies in the master’s program “Corrosion protection of equipment and facilities” (MMK11), and then post-graduate of the Department “Oil Apparatus Technology” (TNA). The article describes the long history of the development of the specialty “Technology of anticorrosion protection of equipment and facilities”, justified the importance of training and prospects for future employment of graduates in this direction.
This article describes the types of corrosion and the patterns of their use of inhibitors, depending on the operating conditions of the pipeline.
One of types of anticorrosive actions is the inhibitory protection of an internal surface of pipelines based on use of chemical reagents — corrosion inhibitors. Conducting chemical inhibitory protection is one of the most effective, technologically available and at the same time economically reasonable methods of fight against internal corrosion of field pipelines.
In article it is shown that certain requirements are imposed to inhibitors of corrosion: this ensuring required protective action both in the conditions of high pressures and temperatures, and in case of usual conditions — temperature of +40 °C and normal atmospheric pressure, and in the conditions of high speeds of a flow and availability in it abrasive particles, and also inhibitor shall have the low temperature of hardening (at least – 50 °C), good solubility in the corrosion environment and a high adsorptive capability, inhibitor shall not influence stabilization of water oil emulsions.
Therefore it is necessary to select carefully inhibitors for specific conditions of operation.
However the used reagents not always provide rather high protective effect. It is connected with solubility (dispersancy) of inhibitor in formation fluids, low degree of its compatibility with reservoir waters, the wrong matching of reagent for specific conditions. Usually in practice this problem is solved increase in a dosage of reagent, but such method not always gives the necessary effect. Therefore, creation of new inhibitory compositions which could provide high protective effect in broad range of conditions of application or improvement of quality of already existing structures is necessary.
Examples of tests of corrosion inhibitors, described the process and conditions for their implementation. The evaluation of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors, and conclusions are drawn about the possibility of their use.
Industrial safety of modern enterprise of oil and gas industry is in a great deal determined by operating reliability of dangerous productive objects most representative from that are pipelines of the system. According to the Federal law “About industrial safety of dangerous productive objects”, these objects behave to the dangerous productive objects and require enhance able attention to providing of their reliability and faultlessness.
One of important on meaningfulness factors resulting in emergency situations and refuses of pipelines is an increase of amount of damages in the metal of pipes, during the protracted exploitation of technological pipelines and thinning of walls of pipes.
Accidents of technological pipelines are attended with explosions, fires, losses of hazardous and harmful substances, able to form explosive mixtures, render the toxic affecting personnel and environment.
Principal reason of refuses of technological pipelines is internal corrosion under the action of the aggressive pumped over products. In this connection the decision of problem of increase of safety of exploitation of technological pipelines in a great deal depends on efficiency of facilities of anticorrosion defence.
The basic methods of fight are offered against corrosion of the oil-field equipment, that apply domestic and foreign companies today. They can be divided into next groups: chemical, physical, protector defence.
The basic requirements over, produced to functioning of the pipeline systems of oil and gas complex, are brought is safety, high reliability and efficiency of exploitation. Providing the brought requirements over can be attained due to upgrading of technical diagnostics and management by monitoring of exploitation pipeline.
In the article the review of basic methods of corrosion protection is produced and requirements are set forth to providing of industrial safety during exploitation of technological pipelines.