Tag Archives: corrosion
PREPARATION OF SPECIALISTS ON ANTICORROSIVE DEFENCE OF OIL AND GAS EQUIPMENT IN UFA STATE PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
Many years of experience in operating the equipment oil and gas properties shows that one of the main problems in the production, preparation, transport and processing industry products is a failure or destruction of pipelines, components and assemblies due to corrosion. Corrosion – a spontaneous destruction of metals and alloys as a result of a chemical, electrochemical or physico-chemical interaction with the environment. Intense corrosion in the oil and gas industry is subject to: oilfield equipment (well, teams of collectors, etc.), pipelines for the transport of oil, gas and water (pipelines, water pipelines), equipment for the oil and gas storage (tanks, gas tanks, etc.), refinery, petrochemical equipment, and more. al.
As a result, corrosion occurs depressurization of equipment and pipelines, which could lead to the loss of raw materials, simple equipment, fire or explosion, environmental pollution.
In this regard, of particular relevance for the oil and gas industry acquires staffing the engineering corps of large enterprises highly qualified specialists in the field of protection of metals from corrosion. The Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (USPTU) train specialists in the profession since 1981. Currently, after the bachelor on a profile “technique corrosion protection of equipment and facilities” (BMK), students can continue their studies in the master’s program “Corrosion protection of equipment and facilities” (MMK11), and then post-graduate of the Department “Oil Apparatus Technology” (TNA). The article describes the long history of the development of the specialty “Technology of anticorrosion protection of equipment and facilities”, justified the importance of training and prospects for future employment of graduates in this direction.
This article describes the types of corrosion and the patterns of their use of inhibitors, depending on the operating conditions of the pipeline.
One of types of anticorrosive actions is the inhibitory protection of an internal surface of pipelines based on use of chemical reagents — corrosion inhibitors. Conducting chemical inhibitory protection is one of the most effective, technologically available and at the same time economically reasonable methods of fight against internal corrosion of field pipelines.
In article it is shown that certain requirements are imposed to inhibitors of corrosion: this ensuring required protective action both in the conditions of high pressures and temperatures, and in case of usual conditions — temperature of +40 °C and normal atmospheric pressure, and in the conditions of high speeds of a flow and availability in it abrasive particles, and also inhibitor shall have the low temperature of hardening (at least – 50 °C), good solubility in the corrosion environment and a high adsorptive capability, inhibitor shall not influence stabilization of water oil emulsions.
Therefore it is necessary to select carefully inhibitors for specific conditions of operation.
However the used reagents not always provide rather high protective effect. It is connected with solubility (dispersancy) of inhibitor in formation fluids, low degree of its compatibility with reservoir waters, the wrong matching of reagent for specific conditions. Usually in practice this problem is solved increase in a dosage of reagent, but such method not always gives the necessary effect. Therefore, creation of new inhibitory compositions which could provide high protective effect in broad range of conditions of application or improvement of quality of already existing structures is necessary.
Examples of tests of corrosion inhibitors, described the process and conditions for their implementation. The evaluation of the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitors, and conclusions are drawn about the possibility of their use.
Industrial safety of modern enterprise of oil and gas industry is in a great deal determined by operating reliability of dangerous productive objects most representative from that are pipelines of the system. According to the Federal law “About industrial safety of dangerous productive objects”, these objects behave to the dangerous productive objects and require enhance able attention to providing of their reliability and faultlessness.
One of important on meaningfulness factors resulting in emergency situations and refuses of pipelines is an increase of amount of damages in the metal of pipes, during the protracted exploitation of technological pipelines and thinning of walls of pipes.
Accidents of technological pipelines are attended with explosions, fires, losses of hazardous and harmful substances, able to form explosive mixtures, render the toxic affecting personnel and environment.
Principal reason of refuses of technological pipelines is internal corrosion under the action of the aggressive pumped over products. In this connection the decision of problem of increase of safety of exploitation of technological pipelines in a great deal depends on efficiency of facilities of anticorrosion defence.
The basic methods of fight are offered against corrosion of the oil-field equipment, that apply domestic and foreign companies today. They can be divided into next groups: chemical, physical, protector defence.
The basic requirements over, produced to functioning of the pipeline systems of oil and gas complex, are brought is safety, high reliability and efficiency of exploitation. Providing the brought requirements over can be attained due to upgrading of technical diagnostics and management by monitoring of exploitation pipeline.
In the article the review of basic methods of corrosion protection is produced and requirements are set forth to providing of industrial safety during exploitation of technological pipelines.
In work the analysis of the conditions of valves in petroleum refining industry. The indicators of durability and operational reliability of pipe fittings, defined by time and resource. The main factor limiting the service life of the valve, is corrosive working environment determined by the corrosion rate. The factors influencing the corrosion rate of pipe fittings. Lists the most frequent value in refinery processes crude oil processing (temperature and pressure processes). The critical parameters of operation of pipeline valves petroleum refining industry: minimum and maximum temperature; maximum pressure; aggressive environment. In the valve industry for the manufacture of body parts pipe fittings are mainly used cast iron, steel, nonferrous metals and alloys. The analysis of existing materials for pipe fittings. Lists the main indicators for material selection of pipe fittings for the petrochemical industry. It is established that the most appropriate material for the manufacture of body parts of pipe fittings that meet certain critical operating parameters, is corrosion-resistant austenitic steel. Noted that body parts pipe fittings are manufactured mainly in the form of castings. Currently used high-alloy corrosion-resistant steel for the manufacture of body parts for industrial valves in petroleum refining industry has the following disadvantages: corrosion of limiting the period of its operation; the tendency of the steel to intergranular corrosion, which in some cases degrades the performance of the castings; the high cost of steel in view of the presence in it of scarce and costly element is Nickel; the lack of homogeneity of the steel structure (the presence in the structure of ferrite phase). Operating conditions of pipeline valves formed material requirements body parts pipeline valves petroleum refining industry.
INCREASE OF INDICATORS OF SAFETY OF OBJECTS OF OIL PRODUCTION OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS AREA AT A STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT WORKS
One of leaders among subjects of the Russian Federation in a number of indicators, such as oil production, electricity generation, and also on industrial output is Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra). Enormous stocks of energy and materials, create potential threat of life and to human health, environment. The problem of ensuring industrial and ecological safety on objects of the oil-extracting industry is extremely actual now.
Technical investigation of the reasons of accidents shows that wear of the equipment, corrosion, mechanical damages, construction marriage, violations by the operating and service organizations of requirements of the legislation in the field of industrial safety at all stages of life cycle of hazardous production facility became the main of them. Emergence of refusals, depressurization of pipelines, lead to accidents, are followed by emergency oil spills, the fires, explosions and destructions. Among the organizational reasons of accidents it should be noted the low-qualified organization of works, violation of regulations of repair work, an inefficiency of production control, absence or malfunction of means of antiemergency protection, the alarm system.
One of stages of actions for increase of safety is development of project documentation on arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. At a design stage there is an opportunity to find the most rational solution which efficiency is estimated both in value terms, and in indicators of reliability, safety of the conceived ideas. Hence the need to provide qualified technical decisions in all phases and stages of development of project documentation.
In this paper, there are offered measures for increase of safety at design of arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra by the design organization JSC “RN-UfaNIPIneft”, actions for restriction of volume of an exit of liquid from the oil and gas combined pipeline in environment through an emergency gap, actions for protection of pipelines against corrosion are offered.