Tag Archives: emissions
Utilization of oil (dissolved) of associated gas continues to be an extremely important issue for our country the last two decades. «Hitched» (so-called associated gas oil) – is a required element that accompanies the process of oil production and the presence of any oil, and especially gas and oil and gas condensate field. In fact, it is a gas that is released from the oil during its production. During this period, Russia ranks first in the world in terms of the burning of associated gas flaring at oil. Most of the free, especially low-pressure gases are classified as fatty and extra fat. With light oil is typically extracted more fatty gases, with heavy oil – mostly dry (lean and mean) gases. With the increase in C3+ hydrocarbons increases the value of the associated petroleum gas. Unlike natural gas, which has in its composition to 98% methane, the scope of the gas is much broader. After all, this gas can be used not only to produce thermal or electric energy, but also as a valuable raw material for petrochemical. The product range, which is possible to obtain a physical separation, is quite wide of associated gas: dry stripped gas (DSG); broad fraction of light hydrocarbons (NGL); stable natural gasoline; gas motor fuel (automotive LPG); liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for domestic needs; ethane and other narrow fractions, including individual hydrocarbons (propane, butanes, pentanes).
Addition of APG can be separated nitrogen, helium, sulfur-containing compounds. It should be noted that at each subsequent process where the feedstock will be products of the previous stage (eg. Ethane → ethylene → polyethylene → plastic products, etc.), the value of new products will increase many times.
Despite the attractiveness of the utilization of associated gas in the industrial and commercial purposes, there are certain technical difficulties associated with some features of this raw material. While stressing the multi-stage separation of oil from the field associated gas should be prepared for transportation to the consumer.
In this article the need to address the utilization of associated petroleum gas due to environmental and financial considerations.
Analysis methods of evaluation process of losses liquefied petroleum gas at the gas supply object. P.2
The methods for determining losses of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG ) in the process of filling, transportation, storage and vehicle refueling at gas-filling stations (gas stations ) are analyzed. The sites and process operations in which the losses are formed of the LPG that are not covered by the existing methods are determined. The features of the process and equipment design of gas stations, affecting the losses of LPG are considered. Achieved definition remainder of the liquid phase LPG (“dead” remnant) in the tank after draining through experimentation. The formula for calculating the losses of LPG produced during vehicle refueling at gas stations, taking into account the structural features of the filling equipment, the formula for calculating the losses of LPG as a “dead” remnant in the tank and the formula for calculating the losses when draining the tank of LPG filling stations from free water are proposed. Based on the analysis methods and experimental data, a method of estimating the losses of LPG in the process of filling, transportation, storage and vehicle refueling is proposed The calculations of the losses of LPG on the proposed and existing methods are performed.
Analysis methods of evaluation process of losses liquefied petroleum gas at the gas supply object. P.1
The methods for determining losses of liquefied petroleum gas in the process of reception, transport, storage and refueling of cars at gas-filling stations are analyzed. The methods for determining losses of liquefied petroleum gas by methods available in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States are considered. The process operations when the losses are produced liquefied petroleum gas are presented. The mathematical formulas for determining loss calculations of liquefied petroleum gas in the technological process of receiving, transporting, storage and refueling of cars at gas-filling stations are analyzed. The main sections of loss of liquefied petroleum gas in the process of reception, transport, storage and refueling of cars at gas-filling stations are determined. The calculations of the loss of liquefied petroleum gas on the considered methods based on the raw data of a typical automotive operating gas station, using the evidence of geometric size of the equipment, the number of process operations, operating modes, temperature indicators, the volume of used liquefied petroleum gas are made. The emissions of liquefied petroleum gas in the process of reception, transport, storage and refueling of cars at gas-filling stations on the basis of the calculation of losses are evaluated.
Currently, industry and housing and public utilities exert the main pollutant impact on surface-water bodies. At the same time, more than 90% of the total mass of pollutants released into water bodies from wastewaters are caused by chemical and petrochemical industry. At a petrochemical complex of Bashkortostan republic, Russia, producing the terephthalic acid and polyethylene terephthalate an environmental management system is implemented, so that it helps to maintain the composition of wastewater and discharges into the atmosphere within the maximum allowable concentrations.