Tag Archives: explosion
STATISTICS OF EMERGENCY ACCIDENTS IN THE REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY FOR THE 2007-2016 YEARS
In the second half of the ХХ century there have seen a dramatic leap in the growth of the construction of the oil refining and petrochemical industries. Along with the growth of enterprises was carried out and the increase of their concentration, complication of technological processes and production, which resulted in an increase in the number of circulating data objects, flammable gases, flammable and combustible liquids. All this has led to the deterioration of the fire situation and increase the number of large technogenic accidents. The accident of modernity differ a catastrophic scale, huge damage to the environment and the economy, as well as high mortality and injury rate.
For petrochemical and oil-refining industries are of an emergency such as: total or partial destruction of technological devices and installations, fire strait, the formation of toxic clouds, the explosion of the fuel mixture and other dangerous situations.
Despite the tightening of the legislative framework in the field of ensuring fire and industrial safety, in our country still has a high accident rate among the objects of oil-refining and petrochemical industries. High accident risk is primarily associated with low quality of technological equipment, highly susceptible to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as the presence in the feedstock of a large number of sulfur compounds present in large quantities in the oil of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and other regions of the Russian Federation.
To reduce the number of accidents at oil-refining and petrochemical industries, first and foremost, you must know the source – the cause, in which has occurred an emergency. For this purpose, we carried out the analysis of emergencies such as fires, explosions, releases of hazardous substances that occurred at the facilities of oil-refining and petrochemical industry in the period since 2007 to 2016.
At the present stage of development of knowledge about the human body and its environment to assess the level of safety of the person or of any system is increasingly used the concept of risk. Risk theory in the last decades of the intensively developed for the evaluation and analysis of many of the safety aspects of complex systems (technical, social, economic), as well as in protecting people from fires, disasters and other emergency situations.
In our country studies of risk problems intensified after the Chernobyl accident, when the ideology of “absolute security” showed its inconsistency. It was then that the security philosophy was reformed radically, that was the beginning of building a new science of security based on the principle of “acceptable” risk. This process in our days have already passed into the realm of practical implementation of the new legislation and normative-methodological documents in the field of security (primarily industrial, fire, radiation and environmental) are already widely used ideas of analysis and risk management (Federal Law №184 “On technical regulation”, GOST R 51897-2002 “Management of risk. Terms and definitions”, GOST R 12.0.006-2002 “General requirements to the system of labour protection management in organizations”, etc.).
Actively perceive and implement the methodology of risk analysis and management at the present time in many ministries and departments (especially in emergencies).
The methodology of risk analysis as an effective tool to support management decisions gradually finds understanding in the regional, district and municipal administrations and secured the relevant local legislative and normative-methodological documents.
The present work is devoted to developing a method of calculating the values of individual fire risk when assessing risk of death of people inside buildings (premises), from the explosion.
A special role in ensuring the safety of people is the assessment of the extent of industrial accidents, on the basis of which there is a further development of those or other measures to improve security. Currently on a legislative level unified methodical complex assessment of the scale of the accident, including the assessment of the risk of loss of life.
So, in 2009, the main body of the MES of Russia for the purposes of assessing the risk of fatalities has introduced the concept of fire risks (potential, individual and social), as well as the indicated maximum values for the supervised entities.
For calculating quantities of fire risks, also in 2009, were issued two orders: order No. 382 dated 30.06.2009 «On approval of the methodology for determining the estimated values of fire risk in buildings, structures and buildings of various classes of functional fire hazard» and order No. 404 from 10.07.2009 «On approval of the methodology for determining the estimated values of fire risk at production facilities». By using these techniques it has been possible to estimate the value of risk on the majority of existing or emerging interest.
However, remained unaffected objects on which you want to assess the extent of the accident or fire risk explosion inside buildings (premises).
To supplement the above techniques developed methodical complex, which includes: dependence on the determination of the magnitude of individual risk in the explosion inside the premises; the frequency of occurrence of hazardous events for various objects; the factors, taking into account the effectiveness of the system of assurance of protection of the object of surveillance.
INCREASE OF INDICATORS OF SAFETY OF OBJECTS OF OIL PRODUCTION OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS AREA AT A STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT WORKS
One of leaders among subjects of the Russian Federation in a number of indicators, such as oil production, electricity generation, and also on industrial output is Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra). Enormous stocks of energy and materials, create potential threat of life and to human health, environment. The problem of ensuring industrial and ecological safety on objects of the oil-extracting industry is extremely actual now.
Technical investigation of the reasons of accidents shows that wear of the equipment, corrosion, mechanical damages, construction marriage, violations by the operating and service organizations of requirements of the legislation in the field of industrial safety at all stages of life cycle of hazardous production facility became the main of them. Emergence of refusals, depressurization of pipelines, lead to accidents, are followed by emergency oil spills, the fires, explosions and destructions. Among the organizational reasons of accidents it should be noted the low-qualified organization of works, violation of regulations of repair work, an inefficiency of production control, absence or malfunction of means of antiemergency protection, the alarm system.
One of stages of actions for increase of safety is development of project documentation on arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. At a design stage there is an opportunity to find the most rational solution which efficiency is estimated both in value terms, and in indicators of reliability, safety of the conceived ideas. Hence the need to provide qualified technical decisions in all phases and stages of development of project documentation.
In this paper, there are offered measures for increase of safety at design of arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra by the design organization JSC “RN-UfaNIPIneft”, actions for restriction of volume of an exit of liquid from the oil and gas combined pipeline in environment through an emergency gap, actions for protection of pipelines against corrosion are offered.
STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF THE INFLAMMABILITY OF FUEL MIX WITH OXYGEN
The second half of the twentieth century became time of active development of fire and industrial safety. First of all it is connected with growth of industrial production, increase of its concentration, complication of technologies, use of the wide nomenclature of new types of the substances participating in technological processes, etc. All this led to that occurring technogenic accidents began to have more and more catastrophic character, making adverse effect on human health and surrounding environment. To accidents at the enterprises of oil and gas branch large volumes of emission of the fire and explosion hazardous substances, forming clouds the fuel mix with oxygen of mixes, oil spills and as a result – fires, explosions, destruction of devices and the whole installations are characteristic. In article problems of determination of critical concentration of combustible substance in a cloud of fuel mix with oxygen at which emergence of a explosion situation, in dependence on temperature of surrounding space and fire-dangerous properties of combustible substance is possible are considered. The article presents the results of laboratory studies on the procedure adopted EMERCOM Russia the influence of temperature on the surrounding space explosion limit fuel-air mixtures. As test compounds were used as a gas-air mixture (a mixture of hydrogen sulphide with oxygen and propane-butane), and the highly explosive vapor-air mixture (a mixture of gasoline vapor and air oxygen). Dependences between temperature and concentration limits of an inflammability the fuel mixes with oxygen were removed. The obtained values are derived dependencies subjected compared with values previously obtained experimentally. Results of the comparison showed that the error for all the obtained values did not exceed 5 per cent.