Tag Archives: extraction
This research is relevant as the development of world energy over the past decades is characterized by increased production and consumption of natural gas. One of the leading gas producing countries is Russia, which accounts for more than 25% of the world’s total gas production. In the Energy Program of the Russian Federation, by 2020, the planned volume of gas production will be 700 billion m3. The development strategy of the gas industry provides for the extraction of residual geological reserves. All these aspects are pushed to create new and effective technologies for gas preparation, as well as modernization of existing technological processes and equipment for gas preparation.
Every year, the role of gas in the global fuel and energy balance is becoming increasingly important. Thus, in 2002, global production amounted to approximately 2.800 billion m3. Of these, only 522 billion cubic meters of gas were produced by Russia’s Gazprom. The growth of gas production in Russia by 2005 was about 5%.
The state of the oil and gas industry is characterized by low automation, the use of obsolete and worn-out equipment, a decrease in gas production in exploited deposits, an ever-increasing remoteness of developing deposits, and so on. In conditions of increased competition from foreign producers, modernization of gas engineering and increasing the efficiency of gas production are vital for ensuring energy security and stable economic development of the country.
The article discusses the problem of exploitation of gas fields, at a late stage of development. The operation is complicated, because of the accumulation of condensation and formation water, a limited number of technological processes are used, as a result of which the productivity of the wells decreases or irreversible gas losses occur during process blowdowns.
Extraction of phenol from aqueous media, including wastewater, is a very important problem nowadays, due to both high toxicity of phenols and absence of the extractants for their recovery satisfying the requirements for extraction capacity, accessibility, cost, fire and explosion hazards, and so on. The article considers the application of different extractants for removal of phenol from aqueous solutions and waste water. The efficiency of the extractants is discussed in relationship with the processes of their regeneration, chemical stability and other technological parameters. It is shown that methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) can be an effective phenol extractant as an alternative to the solvents applied. The authors identified a phenol distribution constant from aqueous solutions in MTBE, which proved to be significantly higher than that of aliphatic ethers and close to butyl acetate. The dependency of phenol extraction degree on the volume ratio between organic and aqueous phases as well as on the number of extraction stages was established. A phenol salting-out constant was identified in the process of its extraction from aqueous solutions by MTBE. The effect of LiCl, NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 on phenol distribution constants in MTBE was studied. It was established that calcium chloride has maximum salting-out effect with phenol distribution constants significantly increasing in MTBE. The perspectiveness of methyl tert-butyl ether application for phenol extraction from aqueous solutions is shown.
Complex columns with the connected flows for the separation of three-component mixture by the extraction
In order to reduce energy consumption for separation of mixtures of three product extraction and land trust product offers improved schema section joints simple columns, similar schemes are partially bound threads rectification. In the first column ascending stream raffinate stream is part of the solution, available from the input of the first column the extract solution on the second. Another schema indicated by the downward flow the extract solution in the first column is part of the stream, this solution is available from the input of the first column of raffinate solution on the second. Positioning of four sections of two columns can be implemented in the form of three columns and one side: the side sections raffinate or extract side, the side sections can be fitted inside the three-pane columns. New schemes liquid extraction can also be used to divide the mixture into two products when one way sharper separation of mixtures might be a few intermediate product selection.