Tag Archives: fire
STATISTICS OF EMERGENCY ACCIDENTS IN THE REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY FOR THE 2007-2016 YEARS
In the second half of the ХХ century there have seen a dramatic leap in the growth of the construction of the oil refining and petrochemical industries. Along with the growth of enterprises was carried out and the increase of their concentration, complication of technological processes and production, which resulted in an increase in the number of circulating data objects, flammable gases, flammable and combustible liquids. All this has led to the deterioration of the fire situation and increase the number of large technogenic accidents. The accident of modernity differ a catastrophic scale, huge damage to the environment and the economy, as well as high mortality and injury rate.
For petrochemical and oil-refining industries are of an emergency such as: total or partial destruction of technological devices and installations, fire strait, the formation of toxic clouds, the explosion of the fuel mixture and other dangerous situations.
Despite the tightening of the legislative framework in the field of ensuring fire and industrial safety, in our country still has a high accident rate among the objects of oil-refining and petrochemical industries. High accident risk is primarily associated with low quality of technological equipment, highly susceptible to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as the presence in the feedstock of a large number of sulfur compounds present in large quantities in the oil of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and other regions of the Russian Federation.
To reduce the number of accidents at oil-refining and petrochemical industries, first and foremost, you must know the source – the cause, in which has occurred an emergency. For this purpose, we carried out the analysis of emergencies such as fires, explosions, releases of hazardous substances that occurred at the facilities of oil-refining and petrochemical industry in the period since 2007 to 2016.
Fire safety at the objects of petrochemical and oil production is a very important part of fire safety. Fires and accidents on objects of oil refining lead to serious consequences for the environment and for the population.
In the country repeatedly carried out reforms that affect the institutional foundations of fire protection, repeatedly changed affiliation, and departmental affiliation. One of the main components of fire protection – contractual Federal fire service of state fire service SBS FPS(contractual) were created in the course of reforming of the object of units of the state fire service in large industrial plants, oil, gas, chemical, metallurgical industry, etc [1-4].
Work on prevention and extinguishing fires in such enterprises requires qualified knowledge, abilities, skills, techniques and technologies in petrochemical industry processes [5-6]. Contractual fire departments are much better equipped with fire equipment, fire and technical equipment than the fire Department, containing at the expense of the Federal budget (again, thanks to the owners of the enterprises). The content of these units (FPS GPS (contractual)) does not cost the state a dime. Besides the Contractual Federal Fire Service go on suppression of fires and liquidation of accidents, emergencies in nearby communities – this should be beneficial to the state!
The aim of this work is to analyze the state of fire protection on objects of oil refining and petrochemistry.
INCREASE OF INDICATORS OF SAFETY OF OBJECTS OF OIL PRODUCTION OF KHANTY-MANSI AUTONOMOUS AREA AT A STAGE OF IMPLEMENTATION OF PROJECT WORKS
One of leaders among subjects of the Russian Federation in a number of indicators, such as oil production, electricity generation, and also on industrial output is Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra). Enormous stocks of energy and materials, create potential threat of life and to human health, environment. The problem of ensuring industrial and ecological safety on objects of the oil-extracting industry is extremely actual now.
Technical investigation of the reasons of accidents shows that wear of the equipment, corrosion, mechanical damages, construction marriage, violations by the operating and service organizations of requirements of the legislation in the field of industrial safety at all stages of life cycle of hazardous production facility became the main of them. Emergence of refusals, depressurization of pipelines, lead to accidents, are followed by emergency oil spills, the fires, explosions and destructions. Among the organizational reasons of accidents it should be noted the low-qualified organization of works, violation of regulations of repair work, an inefficiency of production control, absence or malfunction of means of antiemergency protection, the alarm system.
One of stages of actions for increase of safety is development of project documentation on arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra. At a design stage there is an opportunity to find the most rational solution which efficiency is estimated both in value terms, and in indicators of reliability, safety of the conceived ideas. Hence the need to provide qualified technical decisions in all phases and stages of development of project documentation.
In this paper, there are offered measures for increase of safety at design of arrangement of fields of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug-Yugra by the design organization JSC “RN-UfaNIPIneft”, actions for restriction of volume of an exit of liquid from the oil and gas combined pipeline in environment through an emergency gap, actions for protection of pipelines against corrosion are offered.
STUDYING OF INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF THE INFLAMMABILITY OF FUEL MIX WITH OXYGEN
The second half of the twentieth century became time of active development of fire and industrial safety. First of all it is connected with growth of industrial production, increase of its concentration, complication of technologies, use of the wide nomenclature of new types of the substances participating in technological processes, etc. All this led to that occurring technogenic accidents began to have more and more catastrophic character, making adverse effect on human health and surrounding environment. To accidents at the enterprises of oil and gas branch large volumes of emission of the fire and explosion hazardous substances, forming clouds the fuel mix with oxygen of mixes, oil spills and as a result – fires, explosions, destruction of devices and the whole installations are characteristic. In article problems of determination of critical concentration of combustible substance in a cloud of fuel mix with oxygen at which emergence of a explosion situation, in dependence on temperature of surrounding space and fire-dangerous properties of combustible substance is possible are considered. The article presents the results of laboratory studies on the procedure adopted EMERCOM Russia the influence of temperature on the surrounding space explosion limit fuel-air mixtures. As test compounds were used as a gas-air mixture (a mixture of hydrogen sulphide with oxygen and propane-butane), and the highly explosive vapor-air mixture (a mixture of gasoline vapor and air oxygen). Dependences between temperature and concentration limits of an inflammability the fuel mixes with oxygen were removed. The obtained values are derived dependencies subjected compared with values previously obtained experimentally. Results of the comparison showed that the error for all the obtained values did not exceed 5 per cent.
The results of researches of an exit of biogas and atmospheric air are presented in article on ranges on joint deposition of the household and industrial wastes being fire-dangerous objects and sources of emissions of greenhouse and toxic gases at all stages of operation. Despite variety of the factors having impact on formation of methane containing gas, its qualitative structure it is approximately constant, but depending on a cycle of life of the range concentration of components can vary in the wide range. Results of research revealed critical fire-dangerous concentration of methane containing gas in deep layers of a body of the range on joint burial of household and industrial hydrocarbonic wastes, and also the possible reasons of its ignition, such as the splinters of glass available on a surface of ranges and causing a local overheat, and also temperature increase in a place of an exit of biogas from a range body. As a part of biogas, besides methane, are found a set of other combustible components, such as: hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide and carbon oxide. By results of comparison of concentration of combustible components of biogas at the exit from a range body on joint deposition of waste, regardless of its device and the contents, it is established that one of the main ways of decrease explosive- and fire danger is laying of exhaust system for removal of biogas in the atmosphere through system of pipelines and wells. This way is the most acceptable for prevention of explosions and fires on already existing ranges. Gas outlet systems have to be one of basic elements of arrangement of ranges of solid household waste.