Tag Archives: государственное регулирование
The process of price formation and the role therein of the free market and the state – one of the problems, which still, in principle, has not developed a consensus, since it affects the interests of all social strata, States, which do not always coincide. In fact, the universal and complete freedom of pricing in the history never was. For various stages of economic history are peculiar only to certain differences in the degree and forms of restriction of liberty game prices. A special role in the recognition of the need for state intervention in the economy, including pricing played the second methodological revolution in economic science, associated with the great depression – the global economic crisis of 1929-1933 gg.
Key events for regulation of prices can carry legislative, judicial and administrative. World economic history has different methods of state regulation of prices: antitrust regulation, price monitoring, administrative price fixing, “leadership in prices,” depreciation policy, membership in international economic organizations, regulation of foreign economic relations…
Global objectives of state influence on prices are: promoting structural adjustment and modernization of the national economy, improving the rate and proportions of economic development, growth of competitiveness on the world market, fighting inflation, smoothing of social tension. Ultimately, control in pricing is the implementation of the course of state regulation – optimisation of economic development and stabilization of the social system.
The article describes the basic methods of state regulation of prices, and emphasis on the oil and gas sector.
PRICES: PROBLEMS OF INTERACTION OF MARKET AND STATE. THE BASIC METHODS OF STATE REGULATION OF PRICES. P. II.
The process of price formation and the role therein of the free market and the state – one of the problems, which still, in principle, has not developed a consensus, since it affects the interests of all social strata, States, which do not always coincide. In fact, the universal and complete freedom of pricing in the history never was. For various stages of economic history are peculiar only to certain differences in the degree and forms of restriction of liberty game prices.
World economic history shows that one of the most important methods of state influence on prices is the antitrust regulation, both at national and supranational levels. Among other methods of state regulation of prices is characterized by: a policy of “accelerated depreciation”, “leadership in prices,” the state monopoly on the production of certain goods, the establishment of the maximum level of quotation prices, administrative price fixing, granting the right to establish and control prices of certain goods to a supranational authority. An important instrument of state influence on prices is foreign trade policy.
The global objectives of state influence on prices: increased competitiveness of the economy on the global market, restructuring of the economy, fighting inflation, smoothing of social tension in society. It should be noted that in the article when describing the methods of state regulation of prices focuses on the oil and gas sector.
Based on the geological-economic analysis, it is shown that there is no single (averaged or global) oil and gas complex development scheme, however, no country completely entrusts this process to the power of market relations. The article substantiates a position which specifies that the key point is to take into account macroeconomic determinants, reflecting the fact that the more the state is dependent on the resource base, the more attention it has to pay to it. This approach ensures the raw material and, on the whole, economic and, consequently, strategic security of Russia. A co nclusion is made that the main elements of economic policy in the field of oil and gas field development are tax and price policy, monitoring and control over the processes of field exploration and development, which ultimately defines transition to active development of oil and gas complex. The analysis of the structure of consumption of fuel and energy resources in Russia supports the conclusion that by the year 2025 the «oil era» will have to be replaced by the «gas energy structure», which shows a steady increase in the share of gas in the national energy balance. To implement active gas field development in strategic perspective it is suggested to create investment mechanisms that would make it possible to invite additional investment resources and fully achieve the goals established. This will make it possible to involve out-of-action license areas in the development, increase investment volumes by inflow of free capital from other sectors of the economy. The desire to stabilize supplies stimulates state-legal regulation in order to improve scientific and technical level of the national oil and gas complex. The oil and gas complex is one of the most innovative and knowledge-based sectors of the economy. Only such a complex is able to develop hydrocarbon deposits within the offshore area, especially in the High Arctic latitudes. It is obvious that the state policy concerning the oil and gas complex can by no means proceed from the need to reduce the influence of the structure on the development of the whole economy of the country. On the contrary, the influence of the oil and gas complex should be strengthened, but only providing that its overall scientific and technological level is taken into account.
Methodical approaches to the economical and social estimates of multi scale projects of rational use of associated petroleum gas
Based on the analysis of the dynamics of associated petroleum gas (APG) in the Russian Federation concluded that there was insufficient stimulating methods of state regulation of the process rational use of associated gas. The projects that involve the collecting, transportation and processing of associated gas on the gas-processing plants, as well as the generation of electricity for their own needs are unprofitable for small, remote from infrastructure fields. Highlights the main causes of loss of projects. For increase of commercial effectiveness of projects of the rational uses of associated petroleum gas is expediently application of methods the state stimulation, including the financial and credit mechanism and ecologic-economic incentives. In assessing of efficiency of projects of rational use associated petroleum gas should be settled an invoice of commercial, fiscal and social efficiency. Assess the commercial viability of projects must be carried out given environmental factors. In case of unprofitability of possible technological projects it is necessary to apply methods of economic incentives. The article describes the methodological recommendations for the calculation of the efficiency of management projects of APG.
The following article addresses current trends in improving state regulation in the field of environmental conservation on the basis of quality changes in the rationing arrangements of the negative impact on the environment and the change-over to the principles of the best available technologies.