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The process of price formation and the role therein of the free market and the state – one of the problems, which still, in principle, has not developed a consensus, since it affects the interests of all social strata, States, which do not always coincide. In fact, the universal and complete freedom of pricing in the history never was. For various stages of economic history are peculiar only to certain differences in the degree and forms of restriction of liberty game prices. A special role in the recognition of the need for state intervention in the economy, including pricing played the second methodological revolution in economic science, associated with the great depression – the global economic crisis of 1929-1933 gg.
Key events for regulation of prices can carry legislative, judicial and administrative. World economic history has different methods of state regulation of prices: antitrust regulation, price monitoring, administrative price fixing, “leadership in prices,” depreciation policy, membership in international economic organizations, regulation of foreign economic relations…
Global objectives of state influence on prices are: promoting structural adjustment and modernization of the national economy, improving the rate and proportions of economic development, growth of competitiveness on the world market, fighting inflation, smoothing of social tension. Ultimately, control in pricing is the implementation of the course of state regulation – optimisation of economic development and stabilization of the social system.
The article describes the basic methods of state regulation of prices, and emphasis on the oil and gas sector.
PRICES: PROBLEMS OF INTERACTION OF MARKET AND STATE. THE BASIC METHODS OF STATE REGULATION OF PRICES. P. II.
The process of price formation and the role therein of the free market and the state – one of the problems, which still, in principle, has not developed a consensus, since it affects the interests of all social strata, States, which do not always coincide. In fact, the universal and complete freedom of pricing in the history never was. For various stages of economic history are peculiar only to certain differences in the degree and forms of restriction of liberty game prices.
World economic history shows that one of the most important methods of state influence on prices is the antitrust regulation, both at national and supranational levels. Among other methods of state regulation of prices is characterized by: a policy of “accelerated depreciation”, “leadership in prices,” the state monopoly on the production of certain goods, the establishment of the maximum level of quotation prices, administrative price fixing, granting the right to establish and control prices of certain goods to a supranational authority. An important instrument of state influence on prices is foreign trade policy.
The global objectives of state influence on prices: increased competitiveness of the economy on the global market, restructuring of the economy, fighting inflation, smoothing of social tension in society. It should be noted that in the article when describing the methods of state regulation of prices focuses on the oil and gas sector.
Capital of the state must comply with the concept of the geopolitical center. Geopolitics – a policy on the ground, underground and above ground. In the phrase geopolitical center founded sense of simultaneous presence of geographical and political center. However, if the political center (the second part of the word geopolitical) capital referred quite rightly, something about the geographical center (the first part of the word geopolitical) – quite often not well-founded.
Center of the state is better to choose based on the land borders. The geographical center point Russia without taking into account the Arctic area is approximately at the intersection of latitude 105o east of Greenwich and 60° north latitude, and in view of the Arctic – 64o. The structure of the State and capital logical form by analogy with the scheme of the structure of the globe, and the proportion of the relationship at a greater take optimal, that is, in accordance with the rule of the golden section. Then, taking into account the harmonic proportions, the geographical center is located approximately in the range of extreme points of the west and east, respectively, 85° latitude and 125o east of Greenwich, and the north and south – 65o and 55° north latitude (the Arctic – 70º and 58o). A central territory of the Russian Federation is located approximately in the range in the west and east , respectively, 52o and 158o east latitude, and to the north and south – 74o and 46o (or 48o and 80°) north latitude.
The connection between the concept of a central area of the state, the average area of the state, the median area of the state and the center of the state. Also established a link between the concepts of center Kremlin inner, middle and outer middle of the Kremlin, the transition zone of the Kremlin, the periphery of the capital and the border area of the capital.
Choosing the second place (northern, cultural) capital of Peter I founded the capital, in fact, in a vacant lot. With all the reluctance change their homes (Moscow) ambitious elite still obey the king.
Based on the realities of today follows logically that the new capital should be built away from major cities. However, the new capital is better not to have their field. Now it is advisable to place in the Urals, namely, on the border of several regional, including the different structures of the Russian Federation, for example, Perm, Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, the Republic of Bashkortostan. This will allow not only symbolically seal them, but the whole country and even the West to the East.