Tag Archives: hazardous production facility
The issues of industrial safety are becoming more urgent on the reason of the encreasing number of technogenic disasters.
This article shows the statistics of accidents and fatal injuries at hazardous production facilities for 1995-2016, as well as their main causes.
The main stages of development of supervisory and control functions for industrial safety and labor protection by the state are determined. The role of the mining management in the organization of supervisory and control activities in the developing industry of Russia in XVIII-XX centuries is shown.
The modern stage of industrial safety development in the Russian Federation is shown, and the development of a risk-oriented approach in the field of industrial safety is considered, since risk is an integral part of any enterprise and activity.
Risk-oriented approach is a method of organizing and implementing state control (supervision), while the choice of intensity (form, duration, periodicity) of control measures is established by referring the activities of a legal entity, individual entrepreneur and (or) production facilities to a certain risk category used in carrying out such activities.
To date, the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision is planning to implement a phased introduction of a system for remote monitoring of technological processes at hazardous production facilities. This system allows to receive online all necessary information according to which object security status can be judged, and the important point is that it makes a long-term forecast of the occurrence of incidents and accidents at the site.
OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS ALLOWING TO AUTOMATE PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTION CONTROL AT HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION FACILITIES
This article discusses a brief overview of software products and cloud services that allow automating procedures related to the organization and implementation of industrial control over compliance with industrial safety requirements at hazardous production facilities of oil and gas production facilities. Requirements for the organization and conduct of industrial control are defined by the law on industrial safety .
The analysis of software products and cloud services is performed from the point of view of automation of accounting, planning, monitoring of production safety in accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as taking into account the specifics of the oil and gas producing industries HPF operated and the conditions of their operation. Software products are considered, information about which is available in open sources. Some of the software products are patent developments of scientific institutes. The review of the software products presented in the Russian market is given, their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. The elements of the production control system and the controls of the production control system are analyzed, and the relationship between these concepts is defined. In the course of the comparative analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the automation tools used in the management of industrial safety were revealed, as well as the functions currently not implemented in existing programs, allowing to measure the level of industrial safety, improve the effectiveness of the organization of industrial control, ensure transparency of industrial safety processes and information support for decision-making based on facts, including assessing the actual situation industrial safety and identified violations of industrial safety requirements.
THE ANALYSIS OF DANGERS, ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF ACCIDENTS ON HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITY AND THE RECOMMENDATION ABOUT THE CHOICE OF METHODS OF THE ANALYSIS OF RISK
High level of threat of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature and tendency of growth of quantity and scales of consequences of emergency situations require to expect future threats, risks and dangers, to apply methods of their forecast and prevention.
In article the main questions connected with the analysis of dangers, a risk assessment are considered. It is shown that a main objective of risk analysis of accidents is establishment of degree of emergency danger of hazardous production facilities and (or) its components for the advance prevention of threats of damnification of life, to human health, harm to animals, plants, environment, safety of the state, property of physical persons and legal entities, the state-owned or municipal property, threats of emergence of accidents and (or) emergency situations of technogenic nature, development, planned implementation and timely adjustment of reasonable recommendations about decrease in risk of accidents
Methodical the basics on carrying out the analysis of dangers and risk assessments of accidents on hazardous production facilities are covered. Methods of risk analysis of accidents are described and analysed. Recommendations about the choice of methods for different types of activities and the main stages of lifecycle of dangerous production process are provided.
The quantitative risk assessment of accidents is characterized by calculation of several indicators of risk and can also include one or several above-mentioned methods (or to use their results) and allows to estimate and compare various dangers and hazardous production facilities on single indicators and is most effective.
THE IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY LEVEL AT HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES, OPERATING EQUIPMENT, WORKING UNDER OVERPRESSURE
Exploitation of oil and gas equipment, working under excessive pressure is factor leading to the manifestation of emergency situations and accordingly serious consequences on dangerous industrial objects.
Hazards of the equipment working under overpressure in the operation were studied. An analysis of accidents and injury of considered equipment was conducted. The need for improvement and introduction of more advanced technologies training of personnel for the purpose of increase of level of industrial safety and working conditions in the workplace is shown. The safety of hazardous production facilities, is a complex of interrelated organizational and technical measures aimed at trouble-free work of the enterprise. Safety of hazardous facilities is not only direct compliance with all mandatory rules, it is, above all, stable operation of the main production with the use of properly functioning equipment, carrying out timely and quality repairs, and if necessary upgrades or replacement.
The erroneous actions of the personnel in normal and especially abnormal situations that are the result of incorrect assessment of potential hazards, as well as intentionally or unconsciously ignoring signals about violations of technological processes.
Statistics show that such errors lead to a 20-30% failure rate of the equipment operating under excess pressure. In General, industrial enterprises 80-90% of accidents are caused by the fault of the workers themselves.
The reliability of functioning of technical devices subject to pressure is determined not only by strength and resistance of their structural elements, but also to some extent dependent on the reliability of knowledge and professional skills of the personnel, continuously serving the whole system of hazardous production facilities technical devices including.
MODELING OF SCENARIOS OF DEVELOPMENT OF EMERGENCIES FOR NON-STATIONARY HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES OF AN OIL AND GAS COMPLEX
Results of the analysis and researches of not stationarity of technological processes and processing equipment are given in article and need of their account at design and safe operation of the hazardous production facilities (HPF) of an oil and gas complex is shown.
Research and the analysis of results of inspection of conditions of emergence and development of emergencies are carried out taking into account the analysis of not stationarity of conditions of emergence and development of emergencies in the main technological modules of the ELOU-AVT installation.
According to inspection the formalized models of “trees of refusals” and “trees of events” taking into account not stationarity of risks for head OPO were constructed.
The analysis of development of scenarios of accidents by means of the formalized models of “trees of refusals” and “trees of events” is a component of system of the analysis and management of minimization of the risk allowing to consider influence of the striking factors, to estimate zones of defeat and to develop organizational and technical actions for early prevention of emergencies at a design stage and operation.
Algorithmic providing an assessment of a relative indicator of danger of the processing equipment allowing to estimate total potential fire danger, potential of explosion and reliability of the equipment taking into account not stationarity of operation of OPO is developed.
The assessment of degree of danger of OPO taking into account their not stationarity allows to develop the control system of minimization of technical risk providing safe operation of processing equipment on this basis.