Tag Archives: кристаллизация
This article the first time presented the energy and resource saving, import substitution, environmentally friendly nanotechnology surface hardening rapidly wearing parts, which allows the hardening of large parts of ordinary steels on an industrial scale to obtain the structures of nanoscale range. The technology has been checked and implemented in various industries under extreme wear: on bandages shunting and mining locomotives, trams, wheels lifting machines, on the details of cable-suspended road rollers soil mixers brick factories, drums and rollers winches for lifting vessels on fingers joints scoop chain dredges, grabs, on rollers and friction undercarriage tracked vehicles, brake drums and others.
Not limited and often groundless use for the manufacture of these components found environmentally dangerous steel 110G13 containing 15% manganese. Their example shows the huge material damage to nature and society, associated with environmental problems and technological progress.
As a result, poisoning of the environment the second century comes a myriad of toxic substances, most of which can be eliminated.
The age-old problem and not solvable overnight. But that allows even to a small extent to preserve nature and the planet’s resources for future generations should be subject to public scrutiny.
INVESTIGATION OF THE ASPHALTENE INHIBITOR EFFECT ON REDUCTION OF THE SCALING INTENSITY IN FORMATION AND WELLS
In this paper, the problem of precipitation of inorganic salts and their prevention are discussed during development of oilfields. Scale inhibitors are used to control the formation of inorganic salts in the fields. The effectiveness analysis of the scale inhibitors is essential because active concentrations of scale inhibitors are low and must be accurately measured.
The addition of polymer asphaltene inhibitor in a scale inhibiting system affects the crystallization and efficiency of the scaling prevention in the downhole equipment and the bottom zone of productive formations. In this paper, the results of using inhibitor, which is a composition that based on nitrilotrimetilfosphonic acid to prevent calcium sulfate precipitation, are presented. The changes in the concentration of the salt by using an asphaltene inhibitor are considered in carbonate reservoir type core samples. The calcium sulfate induction period is investigated in the presence of the polymeric asphaltene inhibitor. Efficiency of scaling prevention is evaluated by measuring the mass of the formed salts in the core samples in the presence of the asphaltene inhibitor.
The peak of the calcium sulfate deposition occurs at a total mineralization of 140 g/l of formation water. The results of the experiments showed that the asphaltene inhibitor has a negative effect on the inhibition of calcium sulfate. The driving force of calcium sulfate deposition is sharply decreased in the presence of the asphaltene inhibitor with decreasing the induction period. This force obtains the minimum value within 49 minutes of the induction period. The results of investigation can be used to effectively protect the carbonate reservoirs and downhole equipment from the calcium sulfate precipitation in the presence of the asphaltene inhibitor.
This paper is dedicated to synthesis of MOR-type zeolite specimens in Na- and H-form of high phase purity and having crystallinity degree of nearly 100% with molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 = 15-24 in deep-decationated form, and investigation of their properties. To obtain chemically homogeneous silica-alumina hydrogel, mixing of crystal-forming components was implemented with reaction mass being continuously stirred. The stirring was still continuing during the process of crystallization. Crystallization was conducted at a temperature of 150-160 ºС. The compositions of oligomers were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The conversion of the initial olefin, its composition and amount of its isomers, the amount of low molecular weight oligomers (with a molecular weight less than the dimers) as well as the number of dimer were measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The dimer fraction was extracted by reaction mixture distillation under reduced pressure and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ¹H, ¹³C, IR- and mass spectrometry methods. By method of temperature-programmed ammonia desorption it was found that with zeolite module increasing there was an increase in strength of zeolite acid sites. For evaluation of catalytic properties of the derived H-form of MOR-type zeolite specimens with various modules, model reaction of a-methylstyrene dimerization was used. It was found that with zeolite module increasing there was an increase in cyclic dimers formation selectivity from 20 to 52%. The α-methylstyrene conversions on MOR-type zeolite specimens were investigated at a temperature of 80 ºС with a 10% catalyst in nitrogen atmosphere. The catalyst was calcinated prior to the reaction at a temperature of 300 ºС during 2-3 hours with rare gas current in the reaction flask. Implementation of the method developed makes it possible to expand the raw materials base, simplify the synthesis and reduce the cost of powdery mordenite type zeolite.
Improving the security of the process of treatment of the reaction mass production diphenylolpropane (DPHP)
Considered the technology of the process of the second crystallization diphenylolpropane. Found the «weak link» of the technological process. The method for the elimination of potential hazards due to the introduction of the system of autonomous supply of the sealing liquid in circulating pumps condensate using vessel-tank of the mechanical seal, replace the system of the centralized supply of the sealing liquid in the pump. The proposed method of increasing the security of this production will allow to reduce the risk of occurrence of emergencies, improve the control over the observance of the regime of the technological process.
For the first time the synthesis method of powdery mordenite type zeolite based on crystallization of metakaolin in sodium silicate solution at temperature 150 °C for 14 hours is developed. The zeolite having 100 % crystallinity degree crystallized from the reaction mixture (RM) with the composition 2,9Na2О • Аl2О3 • 12SiО2 • 300H2O. Previously 10 wt. % crystal seed was introduced in RM, crystallization was carried out under continuous stirring. Implementation of the developed method allows to extend the raw materials base, simplify the synthesis and reduce the cost of powdery mordenite type zeolite.