Tag Archives: методика расчета
Development and introduction of new scientifically based methods of quantitative assessment of fire risk is an actual problem. Normative values of fire risk are established by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 123-FZ «Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements». The aim of this work is to analyze modern approaches to assess the fire risk of hazardous production facilities and production facilities. The most applicable methods for determining fire risk in quantitative terms are considered, namely, the Order of the Ministry of Emergency Measures of the Russian Federation dd. July 10, 2009, No. 404 «On Approval of the Method for Calculating Fire Risk Values at Production Facilities» and Rostechnadzor Order No. 144 dd. April 11, 2016 «Methodical Basis for Conducting Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment of Accidents at Hazardous Production Facilities». The object of the study was the industrial site «State Farm Management of Underground Gas Storage» (Sovkhoznoe UGS). Based on the statistics of Rostekhnadzor for the recent 5 years, the main unfavorable events and the main reasons for the depressurization of underground reservoirs were considered and determined in percentage terms. On the basis of the event development tree, the most probable and most dangerous scenarios were identified, and risk assessment was carried out on the territory of the industrial site of the Sovkhoz UGS. Based on the calculations for risk assessment, the analysis of the methods used is carried out. Having considered the practice of application of calculation methods for assessing fire risks, an attempt to formulate specific shortcomings in methodologies and to make proposals for their improvement has been made. It is concluded that it is necessary to create and further disseminate a single improved methodology for calculating objects of all classes of fire danger.
TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING OF THE CRITICAL A LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE FORCE FOR UNDERWATER CROSSINGS OF PIPELINES
For the engineer-pipeliner it is very important to keep a steady condition of the underwater pipeline in the course of installation and operation.
The steady condition of the underwater pipeline is understood as such state at which it will be in rest in advance set (design) situation at the most adverse combination of the loadings seeking to bring it out of this situation. Such loads include Archimedes buoyancy force, horizontal and vertical components of the hydrodynamic flow impact, the elastic force of the pipeline and other. The greatest interest for the engineer-pipeliner is represented by the compressing longitudinal forces arising at change of temperature condition or pressure of the pumped-over product.
Calculation of underwater crossing of the pipeline to stability from influence of longitudinal forces doesn’t occur in the specifications and technical documentation, and there is only a check of stability of the pipeline against emersion.
But the matter is that after a construction of underwater transition of the pipeline attach landfall wet section of the main pipeline owing to what the longitudinal effort which is defined by temperature difference, and during tests and after introduction of the pipeline to operation and change of pressure starts influencing it to it. Therefore carrying out check of the pipeline on stability from longitudinal forces is considered a necessary component at design of underwater crossing of the pipeline.
The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for determining the critical longitudinal compressive force directly to submerged crossings, which can cause deflection of the pipe axis in the form of arch ejection.
In this paper the formula conclusion for definition of the critical longitudinal compressive force is in detail described, the example of calculation of the critical compressive force for the set conditions is given.
Analysis methods of evaluation process of losses liquefied petroleum gas at the gas supply object. P.2
The methods for determining losses of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG ) in the process of filling, transportation, storage and vehicle refueling at gas-filling stations (gas stations ) are analyzed. The sites and process operations in which the losses are formed of the LPG that are not covered by the existing methods are determined. The features of the process and equipment design of gas stations, affecting the losses of LPG are considered. Achieved definition remainder of the liquid phase LPG (“dead” remnant) in the tank after draining through experimentation. The formula for calculating the losses of LPG produced during vehicle refueling at gas stations, taking into account the structural features of the filling equipment, the formula for calculating the losses of LPG as a “dead” remnant in the tank and the formula for calculating the losses when draining the tank of LPG filling stations from free water are proposed. Based on the analysis methods and experimental data, a method of estimating the losses of LPG in the process of filling, transportation, storage and vehicle refueling is proposed The calculations of the losses of LPG on the proposed and existing methods are performed.
This paper discusses an approach to improve the technological and operational properties of polymeric insulating coatings of pipelines by their treatment of the electromagnetic field radiation microwave. In recent years it has become find wide application of microwave electromagnetic radiation of frequency (UHF) range, as it offers several advantages: intensifies the energy exchange in the matter by converting radiation energy into kinetic energy molecules provides a uniform treatment of substances in the irradiated volume and the high stability of the energy flow due to the lack of variation in the inertia of its capacity. A mobile microwave unit for the treatment of polymer coatings, which is controlled in automatic mode, controlling the temperature of the coating on the basis of maintaining the required speed and duration of treatment. A mathematical model of the kinetics of the heating system "polymer film with an adhesive backing – the primer – metal", which can be calculated using the required parameters of the system and thus ensure the formation of high technological properties of the coating.