Tag Archives: оборудование
THE IMPROVEMENT OF SAFETY LEVEL AT HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES, OPERATING EQUIPMENT, WORKING UNDER OVERPRESSURE
Exploitation of oil and gas equipment, working under excessive pressure is factor leading to the manifestation of emergency situations and accordingly serious consequences on dangerous industrial objects.
Hazards of the equipment working under overpressure in the operation were studied. An analysis of accidents and injury of considered equipment was conducted. The need for improvement and introduction of more advanced technologies training of personnel for the purpose of increase of level of industrial safety and working conditions in the workplace is shown. The safety of hazardous production facilities, is a complex of interrelated organizational and technical measures aimed at trouble-free work of the enterprise. Safety of hazardous facilities is not only direct compliance with all mandatory rules, it is, above all, stable operation of the main production with the use of properly functioning equipment, carrying out timely and quality repairs, and if necessary upgrades or replacement.
The erroneous actions of the personnel in normal and especially abnormal situations that are the result of incorrect assessment of potential hazards, as well as intentionally or unconsciously ignoring signals about violations of technological processes.
Statistics show that such errors lead to a 20-30% failure rate of the equipment operating under excess pressure. In General, industrial enterprises 80-90% of accidents are caused by the fault of the workers themselves.
The reliability of functioning of technical devices subject to pressure is determined not only by strength and resistance of their structural elements, but also to some extent dependent on the reliability of knowledge and professional skills of the personnel, continuously serving the whole system of hazardous production facilities technical devices including.
Petroleum products storage systems, consisting mainly of reservoir parks, play an important role in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries. There is continuous shipment of finished products from crude oil distillation plants in reservoir parks. Part of primary processing products is used as the raw material for secondary processes, such as catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, visbreaking and other smooth functioning, as well as the entire enterprise, is ensured by the presence of reservoir park.
The main equipment of reservoir parks is vertical steel cylindrical reservoirs using for receiving, keeping and loading of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, vacuum gas oil, fuel oil and other petroleum products.
In the operation of reservoir park losses occur from evaporation of petroleum products. As a result, emissions of hydrocarbon gases through the respiratory valves cause significant harm to the environment.
Problem solving is provided with the variant of hydrocarbon gas capture unit from the reservoirs constituting a system for the collection, storage and shipment.
The work analyzes petroleum products losses which occur when stored in reservoirs.
On the basis of the computer simulation method there was created a technological model in the program Petro SIM Express, which identified the main dimensions of the absorption column. The dependencies of the degree of recovering hydrocarbon gases (HCG) from the diesel fuel consumption, its temperature, as well as the concentration of hydrocarbon gases in the mixture of air and gasoline vapors are obtained. The volume of capacitance E-1 for diesel fuel is determined.
Equipping the unit will not require significant capital expenditures as the equipment can be used from the reserve of the enterprise or made at the machinery and repair plant.
The application of the hydrocarbon gas capture unit allows to a considerable extent to solve the problem of irrecoverable losses of petroleum products stored in the tank farm, as well as to improve the environmental situation of both the enterprise and surrounding areas.
Dismantlement and installation of large-size details having considerable weight (cranks, belt-and-pulley arrangements, cogwheels) is a great issue while carrying out the overhaul of the oil processing and petrochemical enterprises forcing equipment.
Lack of the universal equipment and adaptations for mechanization of these operations increases time of repairing work, leads to formation of defects, often critical which aren’t connected with operation.
Usage of load-lifting mechanisms, lifting equipment and facilities that are not suitable for such operations, requires additional material expenditures. Thus danger of emergency situations and traumatism of the attracted personnel is really possible.
The design of a hydraulic stripper for pressing-out (press fitting) of removable large-size details from shaft of reducers and other objects is offered in the work.
The order of carrying out of the main technological operations is described, the operations allow realizing into practice hydraulic stripper. These are operations on an overflow got on a shaft of a reducer of a large detail for the subsequent repairing, pressing on a shaft of established or repaired large detail, and also there is a simultaneous pressing of two details on the opposite ends of a shaft.
Distinctive feature of a hydraulic stripper design is that the containing elements, knots and units are simple in usage and technological, and their production is possible in the conditions of the mechanical-repairing enterprise.
Application of a stripper allows to solve a problem of assembly and disassembly mechanization process, to decrease an idle time of the equipment being under repair, to increase installation accuracy.
Development of technology and basic equipment packing block of polyethylene wax into shallow container
Modern chemical technologies allow to reduce considerably the quantity of waste and not finding at this enterprise applications of by-products. However the problem exists. Nowadays much attention is paid to the qualified use of by-products that provides, first of all, their processing in finished goods. More often by-products are the components of raw material that is used for producing materials, products, goods. Therefore the consumers get them in small amounts in the packaged form. Polyethylene wax is a by-product of polyethylene production. The possibility of polyethylene wax packing into shallow containers (polypropylene sacks) is studied in this article in the network of problem solving of polyethylene wax shipping to the consumer by small quantity. Technology and equipment of melted polyethylene wax pouring block are offered. The basic subject of it is the heated container with a jacket, weightfeeder and maltese-cross mechanism that allows to give containers for the wax pouring and provides possibility of the filled container output and its change. Calculations, permitting to choose the optimal construction of the maltese-cross mechanism that provides the dwell time of the maltese cross that is necessary for the process of continuous melted wax pouring, were conducted. Utility of this method application in low-tonnage production is proved with economic estimate.
Within the scope of the problem of polyethylene wax prepaking into shallow container the posibility of its graining using the conveyer-tape and barrel crystallizer was studied. Technological scheme of graining unit was developed.The scheme contains a storage heated container and a crystallizer. The laboratory experiments for getting granulated material were held and the main features of crystallizers were determined. The equipment for constructing a graining unit was taken. Economic estimates show reasonability of introduction these methods into production.