Tag Archives: oil refining
Oil refineries are a very likely source of man-made threats to humans and the environment. To avoid occurrence of emergency incidents, it is necessary to invest in the processing plants and other industries for industrial safety. When drawing up financing action plans, it is necessary to identify the most dangerous bottlenecks in the plant’s technological chain in terms of the risk of fire or explosion. Identification of the most critical parts of the technological process is possible by ranking the facilities according to the parameters of hazardous substances circulating in equipment and pipelines.
It is shown that the process of burning of a hazardous substance undergoes several stages – the occurrence of a fire, the development and spread of combustion, the identification of consequences and their elimination. At different stages of a fire or explosion, various indicators serve as hazard criteria. The article is devoted to the formation of a bank of parameters that determine the stage of a fire or explosion. The proposed method – decision making by the Saati method with a qualitative pairwise comparison of the parameters was realized using the example of one of the oil refineries in the Republic of Bashkortostan. In the process of refining the plant, about 20 types of hazardous substances are circulating with a total of about 366 thousand tons.
On the basis of the Federal Law «Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements» dated 22.07.2008 No 123-FZ, a list of parameters from 16 items defining the fire hazard of technological flows in the liquid and gaseous aggregate state was formulated. The list obtained is optimized for the stage of a fire or explosion. With the help of the correlation analysis, the parameters in the single-valued pair relationship of significance level 95 % are excluded.
The generated sample of four independent parameters of hazardous substances is ranked by the method of paired comparisons and linear convolution. The importance of each independent parameter is established.
STATISTICS OF EMERGENCY ACCIDENTS IN THE REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY FOR THE 2007-2016 YEARS
In the second half of the ХХ century there have seen a dramatic leap in the growth of the construction of the oil refining and petrochemical industries. Along with the growth of enterprises was carried out and the increase of their concentration, complication of technological processes and production, which resulted in an increase in the number of circulating data objects, flammable gases, flammable and combustible liquids. All this has led to the deterioration of the fire situation and increase the number of large technogenic accidents. The accident of modernity differ a catastrophic scale, huge damage to the environment and the economy, as well as high mortality and injury rate.
For petrochemical and oil-refining industries are of an emergency such as: total or partial destruction of technological devices and installations, fire strait, the formation of toxic clouds, the explosion of the fuel mixture and other dangerous situations.
Despite the tightening of the legislative framework in the field of ensuring fire and industrial safety, in our country still has a high accident rate among the objects of oil-refining and petrochemical industries. High accident risk is primarily associated with low quality of technological equipment, highly susceptible to corrosion and mechanical wear, as well as the presence in the feedstock of a large number of sulfur compounds present in large quantities in the oil of Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and other regions of the Russian Federation.
To reduce the number of accidents at oil-refining and petrochemical industries, first and foremost, you must know the source – the cause, in which has occurred an emergency. For this purpose, we carried out the analysis of emergencies such as fires, explosions, releases of hazardous substances that occurred at the facilities of oil-refining and petrochemical industry in the period since 2007 to 2016.
The article is devoted to an assessment of the level of industrial safety of one of the oil refineries of PJSC ANC Bashneft. Each of the installations in this production refers to hazardous objects and requires special attention. This is due to the fact that the equipment is drawn a large number of hazardous substances belonging to different hazard classes. To hazardous substances are not only the main components of processing, but also auxiliary and intermediate products of the technological chain. The assessment of industrial safety is an important part of production and avoids the occurrence of a fire or explosion, and in the event of an emergency – minimize the negative consequences.
To assess the level of industrial safety, it is proposed to consider all the equipment of technological installations in aggregate as a whole. The article uses an integrated assessment of the plants and production facilities of the oil refinery in terms of the risk of a fire or explosion. The indicators of all installations and industries as a whole are considered, the shares of commodity production and direct technological installations of the oil refining process are established.
In work the method of an estimation of the generalized parameter of safety of an oil refining factory by means of a curve of Lorentz is applied. As a criterion of industrial danger of each installation, the total amount of hazardous substances circulating in apparatus and pipelines is adopted.
A quantitative criterion is determined – the Gini coefficient. The coefficient values are calculated taking into account the tank farm of commodity production and without it. It is shown that hazardous substances are distributed according to technological installations with moderate unevenness – the Gini coefficient was 0,441. The installations with the maximum danger from the point of view of the quantity of explosive and fire hazardous substances are determined.
Refineries can have harmful effects on the health and lives of the population and the interests of society and the state, as well as environmental conditions. This is confirmed by the dynamics of accidents of industrial injuries with fatal outcome for 2004-2014 according to the report of Rostekhnadzor. The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of accidents and injuries in the refining facilities, as well as bringing recommendations to reduce them. Distribution of accidents and deaths has spasmodic character. The maximum values of accidents and injuries fatalities for the years 2004-2014 on the PBO refining are shown in the data for 2014, which relate to the change in legislation in the field of occupational safety and health (OT) – the introduction of a new classification of the GRO, namely, the division into four classes danger from class I – extremely high risk to the class IV – low hazard. Hazard affect the requirements for public benefit. RTN Evidence suggests that one of the main technical causes of accidents in the oil refining enterprises is the lack of funds or inoperable emergency protection. The main organizational causes of accidents are poorly organized production control (PC), a low level of industrial safety expertise (PB) employees of enterprises. There is a lack of proper performance of their duties the employees PC services, failure to experts duties, decreased attention to the heads of organizations on PB. In this connection it is necessary to focus on those areas in PB and OT on refining enterprises, namely, to ensure the proper level of knowledge of employees of PB achieved training and periodic testing of knowledge in the PB.
The article presents statistical data on accidents and occupational injuries fatal, analyzed in detail the reasons for the changes in their values, the ways of reducing the risk of damage and injury to workers’ health; emergencies.
The structure of the oil industry and refining in the Russian Federation was studied. The data on the volumes of oil production and refining in 2009-2010 by the largest companies and in Russia as a whole were collected. The changes in volumes of oil and gas condensate production (in 2004-2010) and oil refining (in 2009-2010) by the largest companies were observed to estimate the effects of the economic crisis on the branch. It was found out that the global economic crisis had little impact on the Russian oil industry. The fulfillment of the energy strategy of the Russian Federation was estimated.