Tag Archives: опасные вещества
The article is devoted to an assessment of the level of industrial safety of one of the oil refineries of PJSC ANC Bashneft. Each of the installations in this production refers to hazardous objects and requires special attention. This is due to the fact that the equipment is drawn a large number of hazardous substances belonging to different hazard classes. To hazardous substances are not only the main components of processing, but also auxiliary and intermediate products of the technological chain. The assessment of industrial safety is an important part of production and avoids the occurrence of a fire or explosion, and in the event of an emergency – minimize the negative consequences.
To assess the level of industrial safety, it is proposed to consider all the equipment of technological installations in aggregate as a whole. The article uses an integrated assessment of the plants and production facilities of the oil refinery in terms of the risk of a fire or explosion. The indicators of all installations and industries as a whole are considered, the shares of commodity production and direct technological installations of the oil refining process are established.
In work the method of an estimation of the generalized parameter of safety of an oil refining factory by means of a curve of Lorentz is applied. As a criterion of industrial danger of each installation, the total amount of hazardous substances circulating in apparatus and pipelines is adopted.
A quantitative criterion is determined – the Gini coefficient. The coefficient values are calculated taking into account the tank farm of commodity production and without it. It is shown that hazardous substances are distributed according to technological installations with moderate unevenness – the Gini coefficient was 0,441. The installations with the maximum danger from the point of view of the quantity of explosive and fire hazardous substances are determined.
FEATURES OF THE “ACCIDENT” AND THE “INCIDENT” CONCEPTS AT THE HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES ON THE MODEL OF THE MAIN PIPELINES
At the present time among the subjects of the business activities and the developers of the state policy in the sphere of the industrial safety and also in the modern scientific life the main problems of the existing Legislation in the sphere of the industrial safety of the hazardous industrial objects are widely discussed. These problems specified the necessity of the qualitative changes of the government control in the industrial branches aimed at the improvement and regulation control of the industrial objects’ safety.
The fulfillment of the constant monitoring of the industrial safety level promotes the increase of the effective management of the industrial safety in the organizations operating at the dangerous production objects. The purpose of this monitoring is an operative reaction to the change of factors influencing the condition of the dangerous industrial objects’ protection and performing preventive measures aimed at the prevention of “accidents” and “incidents”. Therefore, for the effective fulfillment of the monitoring it is advisable to keep records of accidents’ indices under the control of the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision. But it should be noted that the definitions of the basic concepts of an “incident” and “accident” on which the practical implementation of Art. 116-FL “About the industrial safety at the dangerous production objects” is based, don’t provide a sufficient base for the prevention of accidents and incidents and also the consequences of their impact on a human being, the surrounding environment and means of production. In addition the practical statistics shows that about 80% of operational injuries and Illnesses aren’t consequences of the accidents. These are the consequences of the incidents (the violation of the technological mode, operation instructions, non-utilization of the individual protection means and others). Therefore, it is necessary to improve the protective measures directed not only to the accidents’ prevention but also to the incidents’ prevention and the prevention of their transformation into the accidents.