Tag Archives: опасный производственный объект
The issues of industrial safety are becoming more urgent on the reason of the encreasing number of technogenic disasters.
This article shows the statistics of accidents and fatal injuries at hazardous production facilities for 1995-2016, as well as their main causes.
The main stages of development of supervisory and control functions for industrial safety and labor protection by the state are determined. The role of the mining management in the organization of supervisory and control activities in the developing industry of Russia in XVIII-XX centuries is shown.
The modern stage of industrial safety development in the Russian Federation is shown, and the development of a risk-oriented approach in the field of industrial safety is considered, since risk is an integral part of any enterprise and activity.
Risk-oriented approach is a method of organizing and implementing state control (supervision), while the choice of intensity (form, duration, periodicity) of control measures is established by referring the activities of a legal entity, individual entrepreneur and (or) production facilities to a certain risk category used in carrying out such activities.
To date, the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision is planning to implement a phased introduction of a system for remote monitoring of technological processes at hazardous production facilities. This system allows to receive online all necessary information according to which object security status can be judged, and the important point is that it makes a long-term forecast of the occurrence of incidents and accidents at the site.
Development and introduction of new scientifically based methods of quantitative assessment of fire risk is an actual problem. Normative values of fire risk are established by the Federal Law of the Russian Federation No. 123-FZ «Technical Regulations on Fire Safety Requirements». The aim of this work is to analyze modern approaches to assess the fire risk of hazardous production facilities and production facilities. The most applicable methods for determining fire risk in quantitative terms are considered, namely, the Order of the Ministry of Emergency Measures of the Russian Federation dd. July 10, 2009, No. 404 «On Approval of the Method for Calculating Fire Risk Values at Production Facilities» and Rostechnadzor Order No. 144 dd. April 11, 2016 «Methodical Basis for Conducting Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment of Accidents at Hazardous Production Facilities». The object of the study was the industrial site «State Farm Management of Underground Gas Storage» (Sovkhoznoe UGS). Based on the statistics of Rostekhnadzor for the recent 5 years, the main unfavorable events and the main reasons for the depressurization of underground reservoirs were considered and determined in percentage terms. On the basis of the event development tree, the most probable and most dangerous scenarios were identified, and risk assessment was carried out on the territory of the industrial site of the Sovkhoz UGS. Based on the calculations for risk assessment, the analysis of the methods used is carried out. Having considered the practice of application of calculation methods for assessing fire risks, an attempt to formulate specific shortcomings in methodologies and to make proposals for their improvement has been made. It is concluded that it is necessary to create and further disseminate a single improved methodology for calculating objects of all classes of fire danger.
OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS ALLOWING TO AUTOMATE PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTION CONTROL AT HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION FACILITIES
This article discusses a brief overview of software products and cloud services that allow automating procedures related to the organization and implementation of industrial control over compliance with industrial safety requirements at hazardous production facilities of oil and gas production facilities. Requirements for the organization and conduct of industrial control are defined by the law on industrial safety .
The analysis of software products and cloud services is performed from the point of view of automation of accounting, planning, monitoring of production safety in accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as taking into account the specifics of the oil and gas producing industries HPF operated and the conditions of their operation. Software products are considered, information about which is available in open sources. Some of the software products are patent developments of scientific institutes. The review of the software products presented in the Russian market is given, their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. The elements of the production control system and the controls of the production control system are analyzed, and the relationship between these concepts is defined. In the course of the comparative analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the automation tools used in the management of industrial safety were revealed, as well as the functions currently not implemented in existing programs, allowing to measure the level of industrial safety, improve the effectiveness of the organization of industrial control, ensure transparency of industrial safety processes and information support for decision-making based on facts, including assessing the actual situation industrial safety and identified violations of industrial safety requirements.
IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF LABOR PROTECTION MANAGEMENT IN THE EXECUTION OF THE CURRENT AND CAPITAL REPAIRS OF WELLS
A key element in ensuring the prevention of accidents and injuries is production control, affecting the level of industrial safety organizations. The effectiveness of the production control system is assessed by the industrial safety organization. As practice shows, the effectiveness of control can be significantly improved by the presence of the control system. Analysis of cases of traumatism on objects of a gas complex in the period 2010 to 2015 leads to the conclusion about the low efficiency of production control and low skills of managers. A significant number of accidents is due to poor organization of repairs, uncoordinated actions of employees, untimely notification of the beginning of a dangerous industrial activities, which can lead to death. However, the system of occupational safety management is not as successful compared to quality management systems or environmental safety. Human error, sometimes it is the unpredictability, the vulnerability in the world of modern technology, high-speed and imperceptible invisible hazards (radiation, electricity, toxic substances) all this makes Osh management and complex organizational challenge.
The article considers the issues of introduction, functioning and improvement of management systems of occupational safety at hazardous production facilities, in particular on objects of oil and gas production. To minimize risks and complete elimination of injury and ensure effective functioning of the management system of labor protection at hazardous industrial facilities proposed to create on the territory of the enterprise integrated management system of labor protection and industrial safety. Considered are the main advantages and disadvantages of this system. Selected list of technological solutions allowing to increase the efficiency of the system.
THE ANALYSIS OF DANGERS, ASSESSMENT OF RISK OF ACCIDENTS ON HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITY AND THE RECOMMENDATION ABOUT THE CHOICE OF METHODS OF THE ANALYSIS OF RISK
High level of threat of emergency situations of natural and technogenic nature and tendency of growth of quantity and scales of consequences of emergency situations require to expect future threats, risks and dangers, to apply methods of their forecast and prevention.
In article the main questions connected with the analysis of dangers, a risk assessment are considered. It is shown that a main objective of risk analysis of accidents is establishment of degree of emergency danger of hazardous production facilities and (or) its components for the advance prevention of threats of damnification of life, to human health, harm to animals, plants, environment, safety of the state, property of physical persons and legal entities, the state-owned or municipal property, threats of emergence of accidents and (or) emergency situations of technogenic nature, development, planned implementation and timely adjustment of reasonable recommendations about decrease in risk of accidents
Methodical the basics on carrying out the analysis of dangers and risk assessments of accidents on hazardous production facilities are covered. Methods of risk analysis of accidents are described and analysed. Recommendations about the choice of methods for different types of activities and the main stages of lifecycle of dangerous production process are provided.
The quantitative risk assessment of accidents is characterized by calculation of several indicators of risk and can also include one or several above-mentioned methods (or to use their results) and allows to estimate and compare various dangers and hazardous production facilities on single indicators and is most effective.