Tag Archives: природный газ
The analytic research results for gas price formation methods on the world markets are presented. The relevance of the research is caused by a role of Russian Federation in the world economy as the largest producer and exporter of the natural gas. Current and perspective volumes and directions of gas sale are reviewed for Gasprom PJSC as the only gas exporter from Russian Federation and the main in the Europe. The interest of the company in supply of gas to foreign countries is proved. The main methods of natural gas price formation, relevant for all regional markets, are considered in the article. The price structure of the world market of gas and the regional markets are presented. It is specified in two segments – according to transactions with the gas extracted in the territory of consuming countries and in a section of export-import transactions. The analysis for the markets of pipeline gas and sales markets of liquefied natural gas are described separately. Price levels and their dynamics are specified. Special attention is paid to the analysis of price formation methods in the European and Asia-Pacific markets as relevant for Gazprom PJSC. The conclusion is drawn that PJSC Gazprom in the export-import supply of pipeline gas adheres to two methods of pricing. It is combination of the market method, if there is a monopoly of the seller or buyer at the transaction, and the price regulated by the state with taking into account political factor. Annual reviews of the International Gas Union are taken for the research as information base.
Natural gas is one of the main energy carriers without which any branch of the national economy will not be able to ensure dynamic development. Therefore, it is necessary to control, develop and apply effectively advanced technologies, including technologies of resource-saving in trunk transport of gas.
The important task of resource-saving in pipeline transport today – reduction of real loss of gas when transporting and utilization of bursts of gas for own technological needs. About 3,5-5,5 % of the volume of gas production are for one reason or another burned on torches or gets to the environment. Bursts of methane in the atmosphere according to some information make approximately 4 billion m3 a year.
In view of a large number of bursts of gas and their negative impact on the environment a row of legislative projects about energy saving and acceptance of duties within the Kyoto Protocol according to which it is necessary to provide by 2020 abbreviation of bursts of gases in the atmosphere for 40 % of rather basic level was created. And also at a climatic conference of the UN in Paris of 2015 «The Parisian agreement» under which all sides including the Russian Federation, shall make the contributions on abbreviation of bursts of gases to the environment was accepted.
Utilization of bursts of natural gas will be able to satisfy a part of needs for energy and fuel, thus consuming of energy and fuel from primary sources will be is reduced.
This research is relevant as the development of world energy over the past decades is characterized by increased production and consumption of natural gas. One of the leading gas producing countries is Russia, which accounts for more than 25% of the world’s total gas production. In the Energy Program of the Russian Federation, by 2020, the planned volume of gas production will be 700 billion m3. The development strategy of the gas industry provides for the extraction of residual geological reserves. All these aspects are pushed to create new and effective technologies for gas preparation, as well as modernization of existing technological processes and equipment for gas preparation.
Every year, the role of gas in the global fuel and energy balance is becoming increasingly important. Thus, in 2002, global production amounted to approximately 2.800 billion m3. Of these, only 522 billion cubic meters of gas were produced by Russia’s Gazprom. The growth of gas production in Russia by 2005 was about 5%.
The state of the oil and gas industry is characterized by low automation, the use of obsolete and worn-out equipment, a decrease in gas production in exploited deposits, an ever-increasing remoteness of developing deposits, and so on. In conditions of increased competition from foreign producers, modernization of gas engineering and increasing the efficiency of gas production are vital for ensuring energy security and stable economic development of the country.
The article discusses the problem of exploitation of gas fields, at a late stage of development. The operation is complicated, because of the accumulation of condensation and formation water, a limited number of technological processes are used, as a result of which the productivity of the wells decreases or irreversible gas losses occur during process blowdowns.
The purpose of the article – state analysis, trends and prospects of development of the global hydrocarbon market. In particular, detailed analysis of the market categories such as supply and demand was made. Factors of demand for oil and natural gas, the major regions of consumption of hydrocarbons, the market structure of oil and natural gas consumption of the countries are represented. It was revealed that the growth in demand for energy resources was caused by increased motorization of individual countries (especially India and China). The major share of oil and natural gas demand at the regional level provide the Asia-Pacific region and North America, at the country level – United States (US) and China. The largest oil producer at the regional level is the Middle East, at the country level – Saudi Arabia, the United States and the Russian Federation. Saudi Arabia and the Russian Federation provide the maximum export oil supplies. The main flows of oil imports are sending to the United States, China, India and Japan. The Russian Federation leads the global natural gas market the largest proven natural gas reserves belong to Russia. The country provides the maximum export pipeline natural gas. The largest import purchases of natural gas occur in Germany, USA, Italy and Turkey. The authors calculated the figure availability of natural gas reserves of countries. Security of the Russian Federation in 2015 was 56 years. To actively growing market for liquefied natural gas is analyzed. LNG shipments rose by almost half over the past decade. The factors for expansion of markets for LNG sales are shown.
USING AND DEVELOPMENT BASING OF GAS FILTER –SEPARATORS FOR COMPLEX PURIFICATION FROM SOLID CONTAMINANTS, WATER, LIQUID HYDROCARBON, RESINOUS AND CARBON-BLACK SUBSTANSES
Nowadays natural gas, entering gas distribution lines, can contain water, liquid hydrocarbons, resinous and carbon-black substances besides solid contaminants, presence of witch are not provided by normative documents.
Gas filter-separator construction development is the urgent problem, permitting conduction of natural gas complex purification from the indicated contaminants.
There was offered the following construction of filter- separator. Filtering and the separator blocks for purification are placed in the same body and divided by the inclined partition in such a way , that unpurified gas was given through inlet pipe to separator block and purified gas gained through the outlet pipe from the filtering block into the gas pipeline. The angle of the splitter partition inclination is taken such that inlet and outlet branches were on the same axis for comfortable placing of gas equipment, arranged before and after the filter –separator. The natural gas, given to separate block, is exposed to preliminary purification from solid and liquid contaminants owing to centrifugal effect, and in filtering block purification is taking place on the bases of inertia and friction processes, going on the grid surfaces.
The offered filter-separator construction allows to carry out complex purification of natural gas from solid contaminants, water, liquid hydrocarbons, tar and soot materials, to realize operation of contaminants removal from the separate blocks at any moment of operation without its cutting off, to decrease the area of the room for placing the filter-separator owing to vertical arrangement of separate and filtering blocks, one above another one in the same body and to decrease metal capacity, investments and running expenses by arrangement of the filtering and separate blocks in the same body.