Tag Archives: промышленная безопасность
APPLICATION OF FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS FOR SOLVING ISSUES OF FORECASTING BEHAVIOR OF VERTICAL VESSELS WITH PROCESS PIPING IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Second half of the twentieth century became the time of active development of such applied academic discipline as industrial safety. First of all it was connected with the industrial-production growth, increase of its concentration, complication of technologies, application of wide range of new types of substances taking part in processing procedures and so on. All of this resulted in a situation where occurring technogenic accidents possess increasingly cata.
Accidents at the enterprises of oil and gas industry usually result in high vol-ume emissions of explosion and fire hazardous substances which generate fuel-air mixture clouds, petroleum products spills and as a result – fires, explosions, failure of vertical vessels and whole installations.
Nowadays issues related to practical calculation of accidents consequences, taking into account dynamic factors affecting strength and stability of structures under the influence of external factors, including explosion, are still poorly covered.
Performance of precise numerical experiment can significantly improve safety of the facility and save time and resources, required for carrying out live experiments, for designing new facilities, moreover it can reduce accident risk of existing facilities.
The article contains development with the application of numerical methods of the model of dynamic behavior of vertical vessel with process piping under the influence of shockwave effect in full three meters positioning and taking into account multifactorial loading and detalization of object geometry. Typical changes of plastic strains distribution in different elements of the considered system, depending on the direction of shockwave effect, were analytically obtained.
At present, one of the main industrial components of the country is the oil and gas industry. Oil production, oil refining, oil transportation – all links of the oil shoulder are an integral part of the world hydrocarbon space.
A feature of the oil industry personnel labor is the impact on workers of dangerous and harmful factors that threaten health and life. The deterioration of the health of the able-bodied population, the reduction in the period of active working capacity, the increase in the number of diseases, disability and even the early death rate caused by professional activity is one of the main problems of the Russian Federation. That is why the tasks of the state as a whole and of any oil industry enterprise in particular are to maintain professional health and longevity through developing technologies and reducing morbidity and injury.
Statistical information on accidents and injuries in Russian industry is presented. The structure and dynamics of occupational morbidity in the oil and gas industry are shown. The main methods of analyzing the danger of occupational diseases in oil refineries are considered.
The method of integrated assessment of the harm index using is proposed. It is shown that its implementation in combination with modern monitoring technologies will allow to develop and implement a professional risk management system, to justify a rational set of measures to improve working conditions at oil refineries.
IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF LABOR PROTECTION MANAGEMENT IN THE EXECUTION OF THE CURRENT AND CAPITAL REPAIRS OF WELLS
A key element in ensuring the prevention of accidents and injuries is production control, affecting the level of industrial safety organizations. The effectiveness of the production control system is assessed by the industrial safety organization. As practice shows, the effectiveness of control can be significantly improved by the presence of the control system. Analysis of cases of traumatism on objects of a gas complex in the period 2010 to 2015 leads to the conclusion about the low efficiency of production control and low skills of managers. A significant number of accidents is due to poor organization of repairs, uncoordinated actions of employees, untimely notification of the beginning of a dangerous industrial activities, which can lead to death. However, the system of occupational safety management is not as successful compared to quality management systems or environmental safety. Human error, sometimes it is the unpredictability, the vulnerability in the world of modern technology, high-speed and imperceptible invisible hazards (radiation, electricity, toxic substances) all this makes Osh management and complex organizational challenge.
The article considers the issues of introduction, functioning and improvement of management systems of occupational safety at hazardous production facilities, in particular on objects of oil and gas production. To minimize risks and complete elimination of injury and ensure effective functioning of the management system of labor protection at hazardous industrial facilities proposed to create on the territory of the enterprise integrated management system of labor protection and industrial safety. Considered are the main advantages and disadvantages of this system. Selected list of technological solutions allowing to increase the efficiency of the system.
The paper deals with evaluation of refinery industrial safety. Ongoing monitoring of technical and technological parameters of the plant facilities allows us to solve problems in the each specific equipment diagnosis. In addition, continuous monitoring of security provides the prediction ability of the emergency installation unit. However, this approach does not resolve the question of the industrial safety state in the enterprise as a whole single object. Therefore, the task of integral evaluation of aggregate processing equipment within one company seems relevant.
The paper considers a method of estimating the generalized indicator of the safety of facilities refinery by the Lorenz curve. As a degree of danger of industrial plants parameter, a comprehensive hazard rank is adopted. Its calculation is made in consideration of each particular installation equipment ranks by the amount of circulating dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. The calculations are performed for all installations of the technological chain of oil refining in the amount of 17 units.
The Gini coefficient was started as a quantitative criterion of generalized assessment. The results of the Lorenz curve construction do it possible to determine the Gini index for each plant process unit. The calculation results has identified value of the coefficient in the range of 0,10 to 0,45.
The conclusions on the distribution of comprehensive index of industrial installations for the dangers of the plant are done. The integrated industrial safety criteria for the refinery as a whole object are defined. It is shown the integral Gini index is of 0,377, and it has indicated the uneven distribution of the risk of fire or explosion in the plant technological facilities.
The paper deals with an emergency and modeling the spread of gasoline vapor in the environment. The solution of the problem is realized on the example of gasoline hydrotreating unit L-24-300 refinery.
Analysis of emergency incidents in the field of oil refining in Russia and abroad showed that the most dangerous situation is the formation of explosive cloud (90% of all accidents). The consequences of fire or explosion at the location of technological equipment in the outdoor performance are of the global character.
The units and equipment are ranged on the main indicators – the number of accesses of the dangerous substance, its pressure and temperature. To calculate the complex rank R according to the statistics of operation of oil refining equipment weight factors to determine the contribution of each indicator into an integrated rank were assessed. Besides operating indicators the residual value of the equipment, which will determine the direct damage in the event of fire or explosion, was taken into account.
Modelling of gasoline vapors dispersion was accomplished by UPRZA “Ecolog” program. The dissipate maps are built for the least favorable summer conditions for 4 wind speed variants: of 0,5 m / s to 10 m / s. A three-dimensional model for calculating a level of air pollution was built with the help of asymptotic transformations. A method of coordinate transformation into the asymptotic variable is shown. Simulation performed for settlements in the western and eastern areas with the highest-density related technological production plants.