Tag Archives: промышленная безопасность
The article is devoted to the issue of stimulating the operating personnel to improve the level of industrial safety. An analysis of the prevalent scheme of the accusation-repressive interaction of the supervisory bodies and the inspected enterprises showed its inconsistency. Increasing the effectiveness of incentives for enterprises to improve the level of industrial safety is proposed to be achieved by introducing a hierarchy of violations that provoke the emergence of dangerous situations. The results of the analysis of the activities of the supervisory bodies of the oil and gas industry in Alberta (Canada) are presented.
Approved and implemented supervision procedure «compulsory ladder» is presented, according to which inspectors of industrial safety supervisors operate at oil refineries. The system is a three-level vertical, at each stage of which there are certain inconsistencies, ranked by the scale of consequences for the population, the environment and the enterprise. In accordance with the rank of violation, inspection instructions and actions for eliminating violations are developed. Of particular importance are the consequences provided for the situation of non-compliance with the requirements of the supervisory authority.
As the first experience for the implementation of the Canadian system at Russian enterprises, a «compulsory ladder» was developed for the AVT-6 installation of one of the oil refineries in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The list of the basic technological equipment of AVT-6 is made, on the basis of the technological regulations, the deviation of the pressure and temperature values of the main process streams of the installation is done – a preliminary, insignificant, significant, critical excess of the prescribed values.
The transfer of Canadian experience to Russian enterprises provides an advantage in a unified system of industrial safety and labor protection, which is achieved by reducing the accident rate of oil and gas equipment up to 15% and increasing the overall culture in the field of industrial safety.
The issues of industrial safety are becoming more urgent on the reason of the encreasing number of technogenic disasters.
This article shows the statistics of accidents and fatal injuries at hazardous production facilities for 1995-2016, as well as their main causes.
The main stages of development of supervisory and control functions for industrial safety and labor protection by the state are determined. The role of the mining management in the organization of supervisory and control activities in the developing industry of Russia in XVIII-XX centuries is shown.
The modern stage of industrial safety development in the Russian Federation is shown, and the development of a risk-oriented approach in the field of industrial safety is considered, since risk is an integral part of any enterprise and activity.
Risk-oriented approach is a method of organizing and implementing state control (supervision), while the choice of intensity (form, duration, periodicity) of control measures is established by referring the activities of a legal entity, individual entrepreneur and (or) production facilities to a certain risk category used in carrying out such activities.
To date, the Federal Service for Environmental, Technological and Nuclear Supervision is planning to implement a phased introduction of a system for remote monitoring of technological processes at hazardous production facilities. This system allows to receive online all necessary information according to which object security status can be judged, and the important point is that it makes a long-term forecast of the occurrence of incidents and accidents at the site.
OVERVIEW OF SOFTWARE PRODUCTS ALLOWING TO AUTOMATE PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTION CONTROL AT HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION FACILITIES OF OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION FACILITIES
This article discusses a brief overview of software products and cloud services that allow automating procedures related to the organization and implementation of industrial control over compliance with industrial safety requirements at hazardous production facilities of oil and gas production facilities. Requirements for the organization and conduct of industrial control are defined by the law on industrial safety .
The analysis of software products and cloud services is performed from the point of view of automation of accounting, planning, monitoring of production safety in accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as taking into account the specifics of the oil and gas producing industries HPF operated and the conditions of their operation. Software products are considered, information about which is available in open sources. Some of the software products are patent developments of scientific institutes. The review of the software products presented in the Russian market is given, their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. The elements of the production control system and the controls of the production control system are analyzed, and the relationship between these concepts is defined. In the course of the comparative analysis, the advantages and disadvantages of the automation tools used in the management of industrial safety were revealed, as well as the functions currently not implemented in existing programs, allowing to measure the level of industrial safety, improve the effectiveness of the organization of industrial control, ensure transparency of industrial safety processes and information support for decision-making based on facts, including assessing the actual situation industrial safety and identified violations of industrial safety requirements.
At present, special attention is paid to the issues of industrial safety in oil refineries. This is due to the growing number of accidents in recent years. The most likely are the emergency situations associated with the process pipelines depressurization due to their corrosive wear, the normal process conditions violations, planned preventive maintenance insufficient quality, etc. Process units’ incomplete loading, caused by a change in the raw materials consumption structure at enterprises, leads to a change in the equipment loading regimes and the increase in its stops. To a greater extent, this refers to the process pipelines linking the reactor equipment, which has a no stationary change in the stress state. In this connection, it became necessary to develop a method for determining the process piping movement when the reactor axis misaligns from the vertical.
The process piping deformation calculating results verification in the reactor axis misalignment from the vertical obtained in the SOLID WORKS software package and their comparison with the results of the reactor prototype mock-up with process piping were performed in this work. Ultimately, this allows creating a unified approach to the various factors influence study on the reactor pipeline systems, which is an important task that contributes to improving reliability and trouble-free operation. The estimation of deformation displacement piping axis deviation from the vertical reactor standard, numerical and observational methods, the comparative analysis of the results obtained.
To increase the level of qualification and training on industrial safety at the enterprises operating hazardous production facilities in the framework of the functioning system of industrial safety management provides the mandatory training and testing of knowledge of employees, as well as periodic training actions in emergency situations. The result of this study is to assess the level of compliance of professional competences of workers to the industrial safety requirements. The formation of professional competence is significantly affected by the level of development of individual professionally important qualities of employees. To improve the efficiency of compulsory education in the field of industrial safety automated systems for evaluation of professionally important qualities of workers of the main professions were developed and implemented, as well as operational staff, determine not only the willingness of staff to act in emergency situations, but also to carry out works of heightened danger. The development of these automated systems included the following main stages: study of the productive activities of employees; expert assessment of the significance of the qualities necessary for the successful management of emergency operations and hazardous work; determination of information content of the standardized tests for the assessment of the identified characteristics; the establishment of local standards for each test and the integral criterion to assess the readiness of the worker to actions on localization and liquidation of consequences of accidents and to carry out works of heightened danger. The use of these automated systems will allow, on the one hand, to reduce the likelihood of accidents by increasing the effectiveness of the procedure of mandatory training and testing of knowledge of requirements of industrial safety workers of basic trades and on the other hand, to reduce the extent of the damage in the implementation of accidents due to preparedness of the operational staff of the hazardous production facilities for action localization.