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Analysis of the influence of fire-retardant coating on strenth properties of wooden building constructions
Russian and international experience in operation of buildings and facilities of different functional purpose, as well as the results of safety research show that operating companies, maintenance staff and supervisors should make ensuring the observance of fire safety requirements at construction sites a priority. The current fire codes classify building materials only in terms of fire hazard, so most of the modern fire-resistant materials for wooden building constructions are designed for reduction of fire hazard by limiting flame spread in case of fire. However, one of the criteria for fire-engineering classification of building constructions is their fire resistance degree. At the same time, the existing fire safety codes and standards apply this parameter for characterizing metal and reinforced concrete constructions only, which significantly limits the use of wooden constructions as load bearing ones. Therefore, it is appropriate to develop a flame retardant, which helps to raise the fire resistance of wooden building constructions in case of fire. Based on the analysis of the existing tools and methods for fire protection of wooden building construction elements, the authors chose the optimal ratio of intumescent coating components for wooden construction structures, application of which in conditions of a construction site is the most promising and effective method of wood material fire protection. The article considers the impact of the fire-retardant coating developed on strength properties of wooden building constructions. The results and methods of the tests conducted for determination of tensile strength of wooden structures after fire exposure are given. The developed fire-retarding composition of the paint helps to prevent decrease of tensile strength of wooden structures in case of fire, and, therefore, to keep their load bearing capacity. These results were achieved due to formation of porous coke framework at high temperatures on the surface of fireproofed samples, which helps to improve thermal-physical properties of the coating as a heat insulating material and increases dehydration period of the components in fire retardant paint and in the wood itself. The developed fire-retarding composition of the paint is harmful for execution of work on fire protection of wood structures of buildings and facilities of civil and industrial construction of the Republic of Bashkortostan.